A study on Key Leadership Qualities of a Project Manager
Origin of the Report This report idea was initiated by the honorable course instructor of ‘Project Management’ as a part of course completion of MBA program at the Institute of Business Administration, Gangrening University. Specific guidelines were provided by the instructor to conduct the study for academic purpose. 1. Objectives of the Report The primary objective of the study was to fulfill the requirement of the course module as per the guideline by the instructor that leads to attaining the following specific objectives. Identify and evaluate the project performance in terms of time, cost and performance. Identify different key aspects of the project manager’s characteristics that influence the project success. 1. 3 Methodology This report has been developed in context of exploratory research.
To prepare this report, both qualitative and quantitative methods have been used. Personal interview with the project manager with the help of a semi structured questionnaire was key instrument. Therefore the sample size was comprised of one single individual, the project manager. Personal observation has been one of the key methods that applied o analyze the data accumulated. 1. 4 Source of Data Both primary and secondary data have been used for analysis in this report. The data sources are described as follows. 1. 4. Primary Data Semi structured questionnaire interview with the project manager was conducted where different aspects of the project were mentioned and asked about to evaluate the specific aspects of project accomplishment in terms of meeting the quality standards required. Moreover a structured questionnaires based on five point scale was used to evaluate the project manager’s leadership role in accomplishing the project successfully. 1. . 2 Secondary Data The secondary data was collected from the website of related entities.
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Some previous publications and Journals in the related field have been used as a guideline to develop the context. 1. 5 Scope of the Report This report was an outcome of extensive group work that will provide guidelines for future related works. As the work was unique in nature and the aspect is specific, it is expected to provide a guideline for the evaluation of performance of a project and the project manager in future. 1. 6 Limitations Different limitations were tackled during the report preparation and the collection of ATA.
Some of them include, Limited time to prepare the whole report Facing difficulties to manage the appointment with the project manager As the project was accomplished earlier team members were spitted and not available together Getting the financial was another challenge as per the restrictions by the policy of the parent organization Chapter 2: The Project Details 2. 1 The Project Detail 2. 1. 1 Construction of the MACH Building Dacha Shania Mission as part of the total project took the initiative in 2001 to open a Cancer detection & Treatment Center at Murmur, Dacha.
In course of its progress it is owe a 42 bed Cancer Hospital with required operation facilities, Chemotherapy, X-Ray and Imaging facilities. A team of experienced and dedicated cancer specialists and general physicians are working there to provide health service at a reasonably low cost. Here free services are offered to poor and ultra – poor patients. In the year 2008 the hospital continues to provide health care services, specially to cancer patients, with some additional facilities. Ultimately the dream materialized into reality and a plan was made to construct a 500 bed Cancer Hospital at a staggering cost of 2. 56 billion take (SIS$ 36. 7 million). The thirteen story hospital designed by a US based architectural firm “Design Alliance f Baltimore”, got started its construction with foundation laid by the then Prime Minister of Bangladesh, Begum Chalked Aziza, on 10th July 2004 on a 3 acre land at the bank of the river Tutor in Attar Model Town in the Capital. The location is about 5 Km from Aziza International Airport and the construction in full gear started on 16th July 2005. This 450,000 square feet 13 storied hospital is expected to open in late 2009 with about 200 inpatient beds, Outpatient department with about 40 Examination/consultation Rooms, Medical Imaging,
Pathology, Surgical Suite, Radiotherapy Department, non-international Cardiac and Neuron Diagnostics, Day Care and the requisite support services. By 2010 all 500 beds are expected to be operational. At that time, based on beneficial utilization, Shania Mission Cancer & General Hospital is projected to provide over 160,000 days of inpatients care and cater to over 180,000 outpatients annually saving approximately SIS$ 13 million annually. 30% services of the hospital will be available free for the poor patients. DAM is raising funds from general public as well as from the corporate sector.
There are special provisions for potential donors to sponsor sundry components of the hospital. One can donate to have in his/her own name or dear one’s name to name a bed/beds, a ward/wards, a cabin/cabins, operation theatres. There are specified rates for each type of dedicated areas of inscription which will be inscribed distinctly as per wish of the donor. Keeping in line with Dacha Shania Mission’s dedication to Divine and Humanitarian services Shania Mission Cancer and General Hospital will be a big leap forward to provide service to humanity by redressing the suffering of the ailing patients, especially cancer patients.
International Hospital Group (GIG), a I-J based consulting firm with vast experience in medical equipment consultancy has been entrusted with the Job to furnish the equipment schedule IEEE equipments and furniture plan floor and room wise of AMIGA to cater to the need and suitability of the patients and users. Considering the huge cost of modern quality treatment for cancer and our commitment to provide with poor and needy patients 30% treatment facilities free of cost, deep thought has been given to make Shania Mission Cancer and General Hospital a viable and cost- effective project with the motto of ‘No-profit-No-Loss’.
Due consideration has also been given to the point that some cancer patients will come with other diseases which will need to be treated at the same hospital for practical reason. Also considering the reality to keep specialist doctors including ambitious and career conscious young doctors there is possibly no other alternative other than opting for building a Medical College in future. In consideration of this vital factors, provision for general treatment facilities have been kept at AMIGA. Moreover, there is a plan to establish a Nursing Institute in future. Building on the ideas of the founder Suffix
Saint Hazard Khan Buddha Channels (Ramshackle Awhile), Dacha Shania Mission embarked on establishing a modern cancer hospital where world-class treatment will be available. Shania Mission Cancer and General Hospital is one of major projects to fight cancer in Bangladesh. So far, super-structures of thirteen storey plus two basements of this fifteen-storey hospital building have been completed. The construction of Radiotherapy Vault and other essential works are now going on for inaugurating the first phase of the hospital with 160 beds by the end of 2013.
However, the POD, Radiation Therapy Unit, Day Care Centre and Diagnostic Facilities have been scheduled to start functioning at the end of 2012. Location Plot#3, Sector # 10, Embankment Driveway Attar Model Town, Dacha-1230, Bangladesh. Land Area 3 Acres Project Cost US$. 47. 29. O Gob. Approval Obtained Architect Design Alliance, 1921 York Road, Baltimore, MD 21093 USA Email:[email protected] Com Cons. Period 2005- 201 5 Started July, 2005 Expected Completion Phase I with 175 beds by end 2013 and complete with 500 beds in 2015.
The POD, Radiation Therapy Unit, Day Care Centre and Diagnostic Facilities have been scheduled to start functioning at the end of 2012. A modern cancer care hospital building is under construction at present. The building has been designed by Architect Mr. Tare Lam, a professional hospital architect registered in the USA . 2. 2 Overview of the Construction Company The project was accomplished by Associated Builders Corporation (BBC) Limited, a private limited company established in 1972, which designs and constructs industrial projects, bridges, Jetties, harbor, roads and buildings of all types.
The company has gained considerable reputation in tackling Civil Engineering Projects which require peccadillo experience and up-to-date technical knowledge in the respective field since its incorporation. 2. 2 The Project Budget and Actual Cost Chapter 3: Evaluation of the Overall Project Performance 3. 1 Analysis of Background and Scheduling Ultimately the dream materialized into reality and a plan was made to construct a 500 bed Cancer Hospital at a staggering cost of 2. 56 billion take (SIS$ 36. 97 million). The thirteen story hospital designed by a US based architectural firm “Design Alliance f Baltimore”.
The location is about 5 Km from Aziza International Airport and he construction in full gear started on 16th July 2005. This 450,000 square feet 13 storied hospital To construct such a large project Shania Mission needed an expert constructor who has experience in such large public project. In 2009 Shania Mission asked for open tender for the project where most of the country’s largest Civil Constructors Joined. By evaluating the proposal the project goes to Associated Builders Corporation Ltd (BBC) for the Civil Contract. The Contract was awarded in two phase. First, one was the construction of basement and first 4 stories.
And the est. of the 13 stories of the building were constructed in the second phase. The electrical and wiring was also included in the project. 3. 2 Evaluation the Project in terms of Cost This section should provide a comparison of the actual costs of the external consultancy with the agreed contract value. Where there is a variation (upwards or downwards) between agreed contract value and actual costs DIP must be informed. In cases where the actual cost exceeds the cost approved by DIP an explanation must also be provided. Initial Approval Cost BIT. 650000000 Contract Award Cost BIT. 800000000 Actual Cost BIT. 00000000 Percentage Variation between Contract Award Cost & Actual Cost 38% Explanation of variation in costs The reason behind the over running the initial planned cost was due to change of the price of material most notably Steel, Rod, Cement and other raw material for the construction project. The reason behind increased steel price was due to global over demand of steel because of Beijing Olympic. The cost over running created a hamper in project progress. The cost proposal had to be overwritten and renegotiated. This also created budget deficit for Shania Mission as well profit minimization of BBC
Corporation Limited. 3. 3 Evaluation the Project in terms of Performance 3. 3. 1 Assessment of Deliverables This section should provide detail on what was delivered by the consultants. The extent to which projected deliverables, as outlined in the Terms of Reference, were met by the consultants, and the quality should be assessed. On behalf of Shania Mission a project in-charge was appointed whose Job was to monitor and supervise the construction project as a overall basis. His Job actually was limited to Consultancy and supervision On behalf of BBC a project Engineer is appointed.
He has the executive duties of overall project. Apart from technical aspects, he had to oversee costing human resource management inside the project. The assessment of project used to take place week wise. Upon the approval of Shania Mission engineer Bill is paid monthly basis. 3. 3. 2 Assessment of Benefits The original date of completing the project was revised several times mainly because of the funding issues on behalf of Shania Mission. Reasons of delays usually occurred due to payment issues. Apart from that some tactical delays at engineering works were not uncommon.
Both cases the responsible party has to adjust the agitation The purpose originally intended the consultancy assignment were to do the Job efficiently and effectively. Because of the BBC Construction Limiter’s effective role the contract was extended for second phase. Chapter 4: Analysis of the Project Manager’s Leadership Role 4. 1 The Role of Project Manager in Contemporary Organizations In brief we need to understood project monitoring role of the PM. Actually, the role & responsibilities of a Project Manager is little complex and needs to be explained elaborately in clear terms for each project.
Let us list down few important roles & responsibilities of a Project Manager. * The Project Manager is the person responsible for managing the project. *The Project Manager is the person responsible for accomplishing the project objectives within the constraints of the project. He is responsible for the outcome (success or failure) of the project. *The Project Manager is involved with the planning, controlling and monitoring, and also managing and directing the assigned project resources to best meet project objectives. The Project Manager controls and monitors “triple scope, time and cost(quality also)-?in managing competing project requirements. The Project Manager examines the organizational culture and determines whether project management is recognized as a valid role with accountability and authority for managing the project. *The Project Manager collects metrics data(such as baseline, actual values for costs, schedule, work in progress, and work completed) & reports on project progress and other project specific information to stakeholders. *The Project Manager is responsible for identifying, monitoring, and responding to risk. The Project Manager is responsible to the project stakeholders for delivering a project’s objectives within scope, schedule, cost, and quality. *The reporting structure of a Project Manager depends on organizational structure. He may reports to a Functional Manager or to a Program Manager. In a bit exaggerating terms, Project Manager is the ‘God’ of his project and he is the one who decides the success of the project. 4. 2 Criteria of a Successful Project Manager 4. 2. 1 Leadership Leadership is identified separately from management, as leadership is more of a personality trait whereas management is a learned skill.
I recognize this is not a common view as many people and companies espouse courses in teaching adhering. Here, I am identifying people who can motivate others as projects are long endeavors, which invariably have points where the success of the project falls to the project manager who can keep the team motivated and get them past the sticky problems observed on nearly every project. MS also have to instill confidence in both their teams and the manager(s) to whom they report. As stated before, projects are long and difficult endeavors, which have plenty of challenges.
When these challenges arise, MS who are able to maintain the confidence of all interested parties have more success. When the confidence in the PM is shaken, executives tend to provide additional assistance to the teams that is a sure sign of lost confidence and adds additional effort to the project. The group of engineers will operate independently producing a fragmented solution. People in general bring a set of implicit assumptions. These assumptions are not typically in the forefront of their minds but exist due to their life experiences both personally and professionally.
These assumptions then drive the set of solutions they are able to envision. When a PM is able to identify these implicit assumptions, validate their relevancy to the unique project, then challenge them if need be, better solutions to problems are identified. These better solutions may be quicker and less risky to implement, require fewer resources or less highly skilled resources, or have a better impact on the business. Leading refers to carrying out the project plan in order to achieve the project objectives. Leading the project is one of the more challenging aspects for new project managers because it involves a lot of “soft skills. Skills such as communicating clearly, team motivation, and conflict resolution. Some key duties for eating projects include, Setting team direction Coordinating activities across different organizational functions Motivating team members Assigning work personality trait whereas management is a learned skill. I recognize this is not a the business. 4. 2. 2 Management Skills On all projects, there is a finite amount of administration that occurs and this to me is the management of the project. The management component of project or program management requires multiple skills as well as traits.
The traits include the ability to organize. Projects inherently have lots of moving parts from end users and pompons with thoughts, to technicians who have commercial applications to configure or code to write, to test teams and configuration managers who have plans and backbend support systems to bring on line. All of these disparate groups must be brought together and coordinated so the project can move forward and eventually complete. The ability to organize the multiple teams is a personality trait inherent is successful program and project managers.
We also have to organize at a deeper level when dealing with the technology. The task of building a Work Breakdown Structure WEBS) is a feat in organization when done well. Not only do business and technical executives have to understand both the strategy and tasking but also the technicians who will perform the work. Laying out a structure that is understood by both disparate sets of people is difficult at best. Now include the capability to track progress in a meaningful way for both groups and the need for deep organizing trait is paramount.
Closely related is the ability to plan, to foresee how a project will come together. Planning also includes what deliverables are needed, how and when to evolve test plans, how many test plans are needed, what metrics are needed, and which resources execute which tasks in conjunction with each other. All of these are unique to each situation as the Statement of Work (SOW) or Project Charter is unique as well as the scope undertaken and the resources assigned to the project. The ability to manage both your own time and the time of those working for you is critical.
Projects have so many distractions making it very easy to head down a rabbit hole that derails the project. These typically happen during the development phases but can also occur at any phase. Contrary to popular belief, the highest risk time off project is the beginning and not the end. Many times I use an analogy of catching a wave for a surfer. This is analogous to setting the scope and planning phases off project. Once you catch the wave, the time to the beach is out of your hands as the wave is going at its own speed.
You can make some moves that will have some impact on the timing but the base timing is already defined. Successful project managers take their time in planning and resist the temptation to get starting developing because time is short. Each project has numerous options on how to approach the work. It is this approach which is analogous to catching the right wave, that has the most dramatic impact on project timing and success. Setting the priorities for individuals and managing to those priorities becomes a main activity during the majority of the project. This requires the PM to handle multiple tasks at the same time.
The moment the first task is delegated, the PM is multi-tasking. If an individual tries to handle all tasks themselves, a project of any size is at risk. On a typical commercial software implementation, I will have the following threads open: ) software configuration, 2) interface development, 3) conversion or data migration development, 4) custom software development, 5) communication with sponsors, 6) communications with consulting company management and sales, 7) project tracking and monitoring, and 8) potentially open core product issues or enhancement.
The ability to manage your time, multi-task, and manage the team’s time is a critical skill. All projects include the use of teams. These teams include resources for which the PM has direct responsibility and other resources for which the PM does not have responsibility. All of these teams must come together and work toward the common goal of completing the project. The team will consist of not only these individuals but also the managers of the matrixes resources as they potentially have competing goals. The ability to create and motivate teams becomes a determining factor in the success of Ms. . 2. 3 Communication Skills The ability to communicate in both written and verbal form both up and down the management chain is a widely known required skill. In the previous paragraphs and going forward the implication of communication skills Jumps off the page. Let me delve into a couple of areas that are not as widely held. The first is with whom MS communicate. I have mentioned the need to discuss topics with business and technical leaders as well as the technicians but what is also needed is the ability to define or clarify technical or business problems to the opposite group.
Many times on a project I will come across a particularly difficult technical issue that either impacts the dates or is a risk to those dates. Naturally, both the technical and business leaders want to understand the problem. Given it is a technical issue in his case, discussing technical issues with technical people is easier than helping a business leader understand why the web application crashes because of Java Virtual Machine OVUM) Heap is exhausted and why this is a problem given the SCOFF Just spend dollars increasing the memory on the application server.
These are important topics for them to understand as well as the opposite. Helping the technicians understand why a good technical solution has dire consequences for the business side of the house. MS are also knowledge conduits. They should ensure that information from one team gets to all the other teams that need it. As project schedules get tight and the tension begins to increase, many people naturally focus on their tasks at hand to become more efficient and get their work done. A great thing for that individual task but what happens when the other teams need information from this one group and cannot get it.
The other tasks naturally fall behind so the project falls behind. The PM that stays in touch with what all groups are going and moves the information between groups can more effectively keep all tasks moving and avoids disconnects when the “right” hand is not talking to the “left” hand. 4. 2. Foresight and Vision Some people have the innate ability to see the future. I am not talking about crystal balls or palm readers but a sense for the direction the project is headed and the ability to see risks and envision how all the elements of a project will come together in the end.
I alluded to this concept in the planning section and it applies here as well. In conjunction with planning is the skill of defining goals for individuals that are in sync with the plan. In my post, “Staying on Schedule”, I spoke about intermediate milestones and mint-crisis as a mechanism for maintaining a schedule. The ability to foresee, define, and articulate these goals goes a long way toward staying on schedule and being successful. Risk management is a key aspect of successful projects and is in many instances not well received as an integral part off project.
In many organizations and as an attempt to manage time, organizations only deal with issues and not risks. Many times, I have highlighted risks to be told we will deal with it when it becomes a problem. The personality trait to envision a risk and the capability to address the risk are key elements to success. 4. 2. 5 Pragmatic As MS we are constantly in the situation of making choices. Usually all day is spent making trade off choices between competing forces. There are times when we have to make a choice a deliverable is good enough, not perfect but good enough as it meets the business objectives.
The prime example comes when dealing with the speed at which application pages are rendered. I routinely hear from end users and sponsors that I want the page to be as fast as possible. From a conceptual standpoint, this makes sense as speed of page rendering translates into efficiency of workers and eventually money. Fast as possible does not mean get 6 Cray super computers for my solution or that I want sub second response time on a page that is making two web service calls and returning a three table Join query.
Clearly, neither is going to happen. What was meant was to increase the speed until it reaches a good balance between cost, time and speed. This is not a straightforward decision. The technician would ask for the performance requirements so they know the solution to build; the businessperson wants a reasonable cost so the PM is in the position to determine what is good enough. The balance point falls to the PM and ragtime is key. Conflict is also a common occurrence on projects.
It can be between two technicians, the test team, developers, the business people, etc. The ability to work through issues and even decide on what issues to engage is something critical to success. People can be passionate about what they believe in so getting past these points of contention whether it be negotiating a resolution, facilitating the discussion or deciding which battles to fight becomes important to success. 4. 2. 6 Can do attitude In our world, there are people whose glass is half full and those whose glass is half empty.
The perspective on adversity, challenges, and dealing with people GAO long way toward success in a work environment that typically includes strict deadlines, changing requirements, heavy budget pressure and big business impacts when the project does not go well. A can do and positive attitude is a personality trait that serves MS well dealing with adversity, the high-pressure situations, team building, and leadership. Finding this personality trait in a person serves them well in the profession of Program and Project Management.
In addition to the above list of skills ND traits, I would add a personality trait of cool and thoughtful under pressure. Projects are intense, long, and difficult activities that have periods of time when the PM is under significant pressure due to impending deadlines, difficult issues, etc. People are also very passionate and so the PM is typically under a lot of pressure and must be able to think on their feet and remain thoughtful during the intense times. It is these times when PM can easily lose the confidence of management or their teams, lose control of scope, or any number of other occurrences that negatively impact the project. . 2. 7 Disqualifications There are three inputs above that would not agree with: 1. Being completely obsessed with the Client. Client focus to a degree is a very good thing. In situations where the project manager is also managing a team and a contract then a proper balance between these many times competing agendas enables the project manager to not only meet the client goals but also individual and company goals. In these situations, the project manager has multiple people and organizations to which they report and must meet he goals of each individual and organization simultaneously to be successful. . Being an extrovert Due to the need for extensive interaction with people, extroverts typically have these skills inherently. Individuals who straddle the introvert/extrovert category can also be successful as they can communicate and operate in the people centric situations. Strict introverts who prefer to work alone and on individual tasks will struggle in the PM role. 3. Displaying personal courage (lead from the front) In my previous post, we discuss the relative timing of leading from the front and jack.
Different situations dictate assuming each style so both are needed and not just leading from the front. The personality traits and skills needed for project managers to be successful are varied. When interviewing PM candidates and identifying internal candidates for a PM role, these people centric traits and skills seems far more influential factors in the success of PM. What may be interesting to many people is the lack of technical expertise as a main contributor to success. Certainly, technical and business expertise is needed for a project to be successful