Conditions on Each Planet
Mercury : Due to mercury being extremely close to the sun, causes its planet to have no atmosphere. If any air was ever around Mercury, it would have been within its early years and from that point to now, it is gone because of all of the heat being given off of the sun. Mercury has crazy weather issues because of the lack of atmosphere, which includes a drastic weather change within day to night. Whenever the sun touches the surface of Mercury, that is when the climate reaches its highess at 801 degrees Fahrenheit in the day time.
Because of the lack of atmosphere in mercury, the Mercurial sky is black and the stars can be seen in broad daylight. The night time becomes a different situation, at this point it leaves it at a chilling climate where it is -300 degree Fahrenheit. Venus : Venus contains a wonderful thick atmosphere which is made up of 97% carbon dioxide. Venus’s pressure at the surface is 92 times stronger than on Earth. Its temperature goes to an extreme result of 900 degrees Fahrenheit, which mkes it the hottest planet of all.
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Its atmosphere is this way because of a strong volcanic activity during the past. Venus deals with sulfuric acid rain falls that come from its swirling clouds but is gone before even reaching the ground. Earth: Earth has the most dynamic weather in the solar system compared to the rest. The atmosphere has changed a lot compared to the Earth’s early atmosphere, but for the last billion years, it has remained pretty constant. There are 3 very different atmospheric problems that is needed to be kept close attention to.
The three atmospheric problem are the greenhouse effect, damage to the ozone layer, and acid rain. The earth is surrounded by a blanket of gases, this blanket traps energy in the atmosphere, much the same way as glass traps heat inside a greenhouse. This results in an build up of energy, and the overall warming of the atmosphere. The greenhouse effect is a natural process which made life on Earth possible. Ozone is oxygen that contains molecules that have 3 oxygen atoms. There is a layer of ozone high p in the atmosphere which shields the Earth from the sun’s harmful UV rays, these rays can lead to an increase in skin cancer. The ozone is present in very small quantities but it is enough to absorb the UV rays preventing them reaching the surface. Concentrations of ozone appeared to be dropping in certain areas of the world (the layer was starting to thin-out). The cause of this reduction was thought to be man-made. Rain water is naturally acidic due to carbon dioxide which partially reacts with water to give carbonic acid.
Acid rain is caused by other gases released when fossil fuels are burnt. Mars: Mars’s atmosphere made up of carbon dioxide, Venus’s atmosphere is much more than Mars. The temperatures on Mars ranges from 80 degrees to -200 degrees Fahrenheit. Mars experiences seasons too. There is dust storms that are frequently occurring. Mars’s atmosphere, has fog and frost forming on the Red Planet because of the water vapor. Jupiter: Jupiter’s atmosphere has clouds which are striped with dark belts and light zones.
High winds and lightning are a regular feature on Jupiter. Other small eddies and whorls form and dissipate in the cloud layers. The temperature on Jupiter is approximately -234 degrees Fahrenheit only. Saturn: Like the other gas giant planets, Saturn’s atmosphere is mainly hydrogen and helium. Saturn is a windy planet, with 1,000 mile an hour, winds do a good job of mixing the atmosphere and making it appear homogeneous through Earth based telescopes. Saturn’s tilt creates seasons and uneven temperatures on the planet.
The top of the clouds have an average temperature of -285 degrees Fahrenheit, with warmer temperatures deeper in. A churning hexagonal cloud formation has been spotted near the North Pole and has persisted for a few decades now. Uranus: Uranus is unlike the other planets in that it is tipped on its side, and, in essence, rolls along in its orbit. At -350 degrees Fahrenheit, its atmospheric conditions stay the same for many years at a time (its year is 84 Earth years), until it experiences seasonal changes, sparking storms in its atmosphere.
Neptune: Neptune is the record holder for the windiest place in the solar system. At about 1,250 miles per hour, the winds of Neptune makes it a stormy place, evidences by a Great Dark Spot that is a giant hurricane-like storm, similar to the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. The methane gas in the atmosphere is what makes the planet appear blue. White storms clouds that zip across the planet are common. Neptune’s temperature averages -373 degrees Fahrenheit. Pluto: Pluto holds the place as the farest object in the solar system feom the sun.
Pluto’s distance from the sun gives it a large range of temperature on its surface, its stated as the coldest by Earth’s standards. It is so cold on Pluto that a regular theromater can not state its coldness, scientist have to use a Kelvin scale. Using Kelvin scale, Pluto’s temperture is at 44 K which is approximately -239 degrees. Its maximum reaches at 55 K ( -218 F ) and a minimum of 33 K ( -240 F ). Pluto maybe the coldest planent but surprisely, it has a warmer atmosphere than the surface of the dwarf planet. Its warm atmosphere is from the presence of unexceptly large amounts of methane.