Corprate Global Strategy
Final Year Core Unit Corporate & Global Strategy Hemis Code: 5J3060 UNIT HANDBOOK 2011/2012 Tutors: Maria Allen Room 901d 0161 247 6527 m. [email protected] ac. uk Carole Forbes Room 901a 0161 247 3830 c. [email protected] ac. uk Dr. Panagiotis Kokkalis Room 808a 0161 247 6641 p. [email protected] ac. uk Rationale Strategic management has become an integral mechanism for firms operating in the global economy, which is characterised by its high level of integration and cross-national operation.
Strategic management issues relate to all aspects of an organisation, including its relationship with the environment and its internal processes. Accordingly, a vast amount of research has been conducted and published in the academic field of strategic management. Yet, far from showing a consensus, this literature is populated by a diversity of approaches, schools of thoughts, and paradigms. Understanding strategic management entails studying traditional and orthodox approaches to achieving and sustaining competitive advantage, as well as evaluating new and nnovative ways of organising and strategising in a global environment. Aims * To provide insights into the concepts relating to corporate and global strategy in the context of multinational, international and small to medium enterprises * To identify the impact of micro and macro influences on organisational strategising * To understand variables involved in strategic decision-making processes Unit Learning Outcomes On completing this unit, you should be able to: 1. Identify the key corporate and global level strategic management concepts. 2.
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Critique the concepts relating to the corporate and global levels of strategy in relation to a range of multinational and small to medium business enterprises. 3. Abstract from the global environment the key factors driving strategic change. 4. Critically evaluate the strategies of a range of enterprises involved in both manufacturing and service areas of business. 5. Measure the impact of global drivers on the operation and development of multinational enterprises. 6. Think creatively and develop the ability to recognise different strategic theories and practices in organisations.
Assessment Coursework 40% comprising one element – an individual strategic analysis report assessing learning outcomes 2, 4, 5, 6. (See the brief below) Examination 60% – assessing learning outcomes 1, 2, 3, and 6 Assessment BA (HONS) BUSINESS MANAGEMENT BA (HONS) BUSINESS STUDIES COMBINED HONOURS CORPORATE AND GLOBAL STRATEGY You are required to conduct a strategic analysis of an international company of your choice. You should choose a company in which you have worked; have some knowledge, or one that has a high media profile.
If you are in doubt about your choice of company, consult your tutor. You should use as the focus for your analysis a topic taken from the lecture programme and apply this to your chosen organisation to look at the particular aspects of the strategy within that organisation. However, this should be set in the context of the broader environment in which the organisation operates. It is important that you relate relevant theoretical frameworks to the empirical information (data) you have gathered in order to analyse, and not merely describe the organisation’s strategy.
You should aim to evaluate the viability of the firm’s current strategy and make any recommendations for changes to the strategy that you consider to be appropriate. This analytical report should be no more than 3,500 words in length, should demonstrate your ability to identify and employ relevant academic concepts, theories and models, and should be fully referenced using the Harvard referencing system (refer to examples in handbook). Please attend the assignment preparation tutorials (see schedule below) where you will be provided with further information about the required content and scope of the work.
In the event of a late submission, university regulations will apply. Submission date: Week commencing 16th January 2012 An assessment pro-forma is attached below for guidance. MANCHESTER METROPOLITAN UNIVERSITY BUSINESS SCHOOL Course: BA (Hons) Business, BA Combined Honors; BA (Hons) Business Studies Year: FinalSubject: Corporate & Global Strategy| Assignment: Strategic AnalysisStudent:Tutor:| Mark:| 1st:(as 2. i +) creative, innovative, intellectual depth, extraordinary quality of work| 2. :competent, complete, insight & observation, analytical and critical, total clarity | 2. ii:adequate, good coverage, some sound analysis, allowable flaws | 3rd:just sufficient, some theory, some observation, flawed but not failing | Fail:Simply incomplete OR totally uncritical OR no analysis OR inadequate material| THE INTRODUCTION sets the scene; and it indicates the areas to be covered, and in what order. | 1st 2. i 2. ii 3rd Fail| | THE LITERATURE/SOURCES/ surveyed is adequate in amount and quality, & is relevant to the selected topic. 1st 2. i 2. ii 3rd Fail| | The DEPTH OF ANALYSIS is sufficient, with a critical approach; underlying concepts are investigated. No unsupported statements: there is evidence for substantial arguments. | 1st 2. i 2. ii 3rd Fail| | THE APPLICATION OF RELEVANT MODELS has an appropriate focus in the analysis of the specific company. | 1st 2. i 2. ii 3rd Fail | | THE CONCLUSIONS, drawn from the analysis are realistic and intelligent| 1st 2. i 2. i 3rd Fail| | As an ACADEMIC REPORT, the language is appropriate, the structure is clear and manifest, & correct forms of academic referencing are used. | 1st 2. i 2. ii 3rd Fail| | Other comments: Teaching and Learning Strategy Learning will be through a mixture of lectures, seminars, discussions, reading and video material. Students will be encouraged to debate concepts and apply them to practical business situations and their own business experiences. Lectures will be complemented by seminars in which students have the pportunity to apply the theoretical frameworks that are covered in the lectures and gain an in-depth understanding of individual publications in this area. Seminars will take the form of group work, student presentations and discussions (focused on textbook material and journal articles) case studies and feedback. Tutorials The tutorials are intended to provide students with the opportunity to gain a more in-depth understanding of academic studies and apply theoretical frameworks to the analysis of real-world organisations.
Tutorials take place every week and usually consist of group discussion and group presentations where appropriate. Students will be expected to prepare for the tutorials by undertaking their own research and carrying out the designated reading. Where students are allocated a specific article/paper/chapter to prepare, they should summarise it, present the main points and then comment on/critique it. To effectively critique the piece, students should research and read around the topic.
It is expected that all students will read and prepare for these tutorials and contribute actively to them. The recommended textbook is Bob de Wit & Ron Meyer ‘Strategy Process, Content’, Context, an International Perspective’ 4th Edition, Thomson. Some of the designated preparatory reading chapters will be from this text. However, the recommended textbook does not cover every aspect of the unit and additional reading from books and journal articles are indicated for the relevant topics, to support the content of each lecture and the tutorial discussions.
The following programme is indicative only; the order, specific content, activities and allocated readings are subject to change and amendments. Week/C| Lectures| Tutorials| Preparatory reading| Term 126 Sept| 1. Introduction to course aims and objectives, content review teaching/learning arrangements, assignment and assessmentCarole Forbes/Maria Allen/Panagiotis Kokkalis| No Tutorial| Practice accessing journal articles from the library electronic resources and Google scholar. Look for:Porter, M. E. (1996)Whittington, R. 2004)| 3 Oct| 2. Origins and ‘nature’ of Strategy. Panagiotis Kokkalis| Groups forming. Introduction to critical analysis. | Read: Porter (1996) Whittington (2004)| 10 Oct| 3. Theory of the firm and entrepreneurship theory Panagiotis Kokkalis| Origins of strategy Readings discussion| Origins of strategy Readings:Porter (1996) Whittington (2004)| 17 Oct| 4. Strategy formationPanagiotis Kokkalis| Assignment workshop 1| Decide on a topic and a companyCHANGE IS EXCLUDED. | 24 Oct| 5.
RBVPanagiotis Kokkalis| Strategy formationReadings discussion| Strategy formation. Readings:Mintzberg and McHugh, (1985)| 31 OCT – 4 NOV – RED WEEK| Week/C| Lectures| Tutorials| Preparatory reading| 7 Nov| 6. Competences and CapabilitiesCarole Forbes| Strategy FormationReadings discussion| Strategy FormationReadings:Hodgkinson and Clarke (2007)| 14 Nov| 7. KnowledgePanagiotis Kokkalis| Resource Based ViewReadings discussion | Resource Based ViewReading:Barney (1991)| 21 Nov| 8.
Strategic ThinkingPanagiotis Kokkalis| Competences and CapabilitiesReadings discussion| Competences and CapabilitiesReadings:Teece et. al. (1997)| 28 Nov| 9. LeadershipMaria Allen| Knowledge Based ViewReadings discussion| Kowledge Based ViewReadings:Nonaka (1994)| 5 Dec| 10. The International ContextMaria Allen| Workshop| Draft report| 12 Dec| No Lectures on this course| Drop In| | 16 DEC – 9 JAN 2012 – CHRISTMAS BREAK| | Lectures| Tutorials| Preparatory reading| Term2201209 Jan| 11.
Drivers of Globalisation and FDIMaria Allen| Knowledge Based ViewReadings discussion| Knowledge Based ViewReadings:Szulanski (1996)| 16 Jan| 12. Strategic AlliancesCarole Forbes ASSIGNMENT DUE| LeadershipReadings discussion| LeadershipReadings:Cyert (1990)| 23 Jan| 13. Structure of industries and markets and the general government and business contextMaria Allen| LeadershipReadings discussion| LeadershipReadings:Case Study: Strategic Leadership and innovation at Apple Inc. Heracleous and Papachroni (2009)Page 681 DeWit and Meyer| 30 Jan| 14.
Strategic ChangeCarole Forbes| GlobalisationReadings discussion| GlobalisationReadings:Levitt (1983)| 06 Feb| 15. Strategy as practice, ANT, CoPPanagiotis Kokkalis| GlobalisationReadings discussion| GlobalisationReadings:Douglas and Wind (1987)| 13 – 17 FEB – RED WEEK| Week/C| Lectures| Tutorials| Preparatory reading| 20 Feb| 16. Visiting Lecturer or Corporate Strategy| AlliancesReadings discussion| AlliancesReading:Koza and Lewin (1998)| 05March| 17.
Organisational purpose & StakeholdersCarole Forbes| AlliancesReadings discussion| AlliancesReading:Gulati et al (2000)| 12March| 18. Corporate Strategy or Q& ACarole Forbes| Structure of industries and marketsReadings discussion| Structure of industries and marketsReading:Miller and Friesen (1983) | 19 March| 19. Exam RevisionCarole Forbes| Structure of industries and marketsReadings discussion| Structure of industries and marketsReading:Selsky et al (2007)| 26 March| 20.
Exam RevisionCarole Forbes| Drop in | | 26 MARCH – 09 APRIL – EASTER VACATION | (The references for the authors shown in the programme are listed at the end of this handbook) The Recommended Textbook: Bob de Wit & Ron Meyer, Strategy, Process Content Context an International Perspective, Cengage Learning, 4th Ed. Journals Harvard Business Review Academy of Management Journal Academy of Management Review Long Range Planning Strategic Management Journal Recommended Reading
Origins and Nature of Strategy Porter, M. E. (1996) ‘What is strategy? ‘, Harvard Business Review, November/December 61-78. Whittington, R. (2004) ‘Strategy after modernism: recovering practice’, European Management Review, 1 62-68. Clegg, S. , Carter, C. and Kornberger, M. (2004) ”Get up, I feel like being a strategy machine”, European Management Review, 1 (1), 21. Andrews, K. (1998) The concept of corporate strategy. In Strategy: Process, Content, Context (Eds, de Wit, B. and Meyer, R. ) Thomson Learning, London, pp. 86-93. Evered, R. (1983) ‘So what is strategy? ‘, Long Range Planning, 16 (3), 57.
Cornelissen, J. A. (1977) ‘Corporate Strategy in the Eighties’, Long Range Planning, 10 Oct. , 2. Campbell, A. and Alexander, M. (1997) ‘What’s wrong with strategy? ‘, Harvard Business Review, November-December 39-52. Chaffee, E. E. (1985) ‘Three models of strategy’, Academy of Management Review, 10 (1), 89-98. Hambrick, D. C. and Fredrickson, J. W. (2001) ‘Are you sure you have a strategy? ‘, The Academy of Management Executive, 15 (4), 48-59. Prahalad, C. K. and Hamel, G. (1994) ‘Strategy as a field of study: why search for a new paradigm’, Strategic Management Journal, 15 5-16.
Huff, A. S. (2001) ‘The continuing relevance of strategy’, Human Relations, 54 (1), 123-130. Barry, D. and Elmes, M. (1997) ‘Strategy retold: towards a narrative view of strategic discourse’, Academy of Management Review, 22 (2), 429-452. Theory of the firm and entrepreneurship theory Seth, A. and Thomas, H. (1994) ‘Theories of the firm: Implications for strategy research’, The Journal of Management Studies, 31 (2), 165-193. Spender, J. C. (1996) ‘Organizational knowledge, learning and memory: three concepts in search of theory ‘, Journal of Organizational Change, 9 (1), 63-78.
Grant, R. M. (1996) ‘Toward a knowledge-based theory of the firm’, Strategic Management Journal, 17 (Winter Special Issue), 109-131. Spender, J. C. and Grant, R. M. (1996) ‘Knowledge and the firm: Overview’, Strategic Management Journal, 17 5. Lawrence, T. B. (1999) ‘Institutional strategy’, Journal of Management, 25 (2), 161-188. Tsoukas, H. (1996) ‘The firm as a distributed knowledge system: a constructionist approach’, Strategic Management Journal, 17 (Winter Special Issue), 11-23. Hodgkinson, G. P. and Clarke, I. 2007) ‘Conceptual note: Exploring the cognitive significance of organizational strategizing: A dual-process framework and research agenda’, Human Relations, 60 (1), 243-255. Denis, J. -L. , Langley, A. and Rouleau, L. (2007) ‘Strategizing in pluralistic contexts: Rethinking theoretical frames’, Human Relations, 60 (1), 179-215. Strategy Formation Mintzberg, H. and McHugh, A. (1985) ‘Strategy formation in an adhocracy’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 30 (2), 160-197. Grant, R. M. (2003) ‘Strategic planning in a turbulent environment: evidence from the oil majors’, Strategic Management Journal, 24 491-517. Hart, S. L. nd Banbury, C. (1994) ‘How strategy-making processes can make a difference’, Strategic Management Journal, 15 (4), 251-269. Mintzberg, H. (1990a) ‘The design school: reconsidering the basic premises of strategic management’, Strategic Management Journal, 11 (3), 171-195. Prahalad, C. K. and Hamel, G. (1994) ‘Strategy as a field of study: why search for a new paradigm’, Strategic Management Journal, 15 5-16. Mintzberg, H. (1994) ‘The fall and rise of strategic planning’, Harvard Business Review, 72 (1), 107. Ansoff, I. H. (1965) Corporate strategy, revised edition, McGraw-Hill, New York Ansoff, I.
H. (1991) ‘Critique of Henry Mintzberg’s ‘the design school: Reconsidering the basic premises of strategic management”, Strategic Management Journal, 12 (6), 449-461. Bowman, C. , Ward, K. and Kakabadse, A. (2002) ‘Congruent, divergent and incoherent corporate level strategies’, European Management Journal, 20 Dec, 671-679. Mintzberg, H. and Waters, J. A. (1985) ‘Of strategies, deliberate and emergent’, Strategic Management Journal, 6 257-272. Mintzberg, H. (1990b) Strategy formation schools of thought. In Perspectives on strategic management (Ed, Fredrickson, J. W. JAI Press, Greenwich, CT, pp. 188-209. Mintzberg, H. (1987) ‘Crafting strategy’, Harvard Business Review, 65 (1), 66-75. Mintzberg, H. and Lampel, J. (1999) ‘Reflecting on the strategy process’, Sloan Management Review, 40 (3), 21-30. Hodgkinson, G. P. and Clarke, I. (2007) ‘Conceptual note: Exploring the cognitive significance of organizational strategizing: A dual-process framework and research agenda’, Human Relations, 60 (1), 243-255. Resource Based View Barney, J. B. (1991) ‘Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage’, Journal of Management, 17 (1), 99-120.
Mahoney, J. T. (2001) ‘A resource-based theory of sustainable rents’, Journal of Management, 27 (6), 651-660. Wernerfelt, B. (1984) ‘A resource-based view of the firm’, Strategic Management Journal, 5 171-180. Teece, D. J. , Pisano, G. and Shuen, A. (1997) ‘Dynamic capabilities and strategic management’, Strategic Management Journal, 18 (7), 509-533. Campbell-Hunt, C. (2000) ‘What have we learned about generic competitive strategy? A meta-analysis’, Strategic Management Journal, 21 (2), 127-154. Competences and Capabilities Teece, D. J. , Pisano, G. and Shuen, A. 1997) ‘Dynamic capabilities and strategic management’, Strategic Management Journal, 18 (7), 509-533. Eisenhardt, K. M. and Martin, J. A. (2000) ‘Dynamic capabilities: what are they? ‘, Strategic Management Journal, 21 (10-11), 1105-1121. Knowledge Tsoukas, H. and Vladimirou, E. (2001) ‘What is organizational knowledge? ‘, Journal of Management Studies, 38 (7), 973-993. Wenger, E. (2004) ‘Knowledge management as a doughnut: shaping you knowledge strategy through communities of practice’, Ivey Business Journal, January/February 1-8. Nonaka, I. (1994) A Dynamic Theory of Organizational Knowledge Creation.
Organisation Science, 5 (1), 14 – 37. Szulanski, G. (1996). Exploring Internal Stickiness: Impediments to the Transfer of Best Practice Within the Firm. Strategic Management Journal, 17 (Winter Special Issue), 27-43. Strategic Thinking Hodgkinson, G. P. and Clarke, I. (2007) ‘Conceptual note: Exploring the cognitive significance of organizational strategizing: A dual-process framework and research agenda’, Human Relations, 60 (1), 243-255. Eisenhardt, K. M. and Zbaracki, M. J. (1992) ‘Strategic decision making’, Strategic Management Journal, 13 (Special Issue), 17-37. Leadership Cicero, L. Pierro, A. and van Knippenberg, D. , (2010) ‘Leadership and uncertainty: how role ambiguity affects the relationship between leader group prototypicality and leadership effectiveness’, British Journal of Management, 21 (2), 411-421. Cyert, R. M. (1990) ‘Defining Leadership and Explicating the Process’, Non-Profit Management and Leadership, 1 (1), 29-38. Hakimi, N. , van Knippenberg, D. , and Giessner, S. (2010) ‘Leader Empowering Behaviour: The Leader’s Perspective’, British Journal of Management, 21 (3), 701-716. The International Context and Drivers of Globalisation and FDI Maguire, S. nd Hardy, C. (2006) ‘The Emergence of New Global Institutions: A Discursive Perspective’, Organization Studies, 27 (1), 7. Geppert, M. and Matten, D. (2006) ‘Institutional Influences on Manufacturing Organization in Multinational Corporations: The ‘Cherrypicking’ Approach’, Organization Studies, 27 (4), 491. Vaara, E. , Tienari, J. and Laurila, J. (2005) ‘Pulp and paper fiction: on the discursive legitimisation of global industrial restructuring’, Organization Studies. Douglas, S. P. and Wind, Y. (1987) ‘The myth of globalization’, Columbia Journal of World Business, 22 (4), 19-29.
Tong, T. W. , Alessandri, T. M. , Reuer, J. J. and Chintakananda, A. (2008) ‘How much does country matter? an analysis of firms’ growth options’, Journal of International Business Studies, 39 387-405. Theodosiou, M. and Leonidou, L. C. (2003) ‘Standardization versus adaptation of international marketing strategy: an integrative assessment of the empirical research’, International Business Review, 12 141–171. Svensson, G. (2001) ‘”Glocalization” of business activities: a “glocal strategy” approach’, Management Decision, 39 (1), 6-18. Schlie, E. and Yip, G. 2000) ‘Regional follows global: strategy mixes in the world automotive industry’, European Management Journal, 18 (4), 343–354. Levitt, T. (1983) ‘The globalization of markets’, Harvard Business Review, 61 (3), 92–102. Leknes, H. M. and Carr, C. (2004) ‘Globalisation, international configurations and strategic implications: the case of retailing’, Long Range Planning, 37 29-49. Strategic Alliances Gulati, R. (1998) ‘Alliances and networks’, Strategic Management Journal, 19 293-317. Gulati, R. , Nohria, N. and Zaheer, A. (2000) ‘Strategic networks’, Strategic Management Journal, 21 (3), 203-215. Koza, M.
P. and Lewin, A. Y. (1998) ‘The co-evolution of strategic alliances’, Organization Science, 9 (3), 255-264. Sydow, J. (2006) ‘Managing to Collaborate: The Theory and Practice of Collaborative Advantage’, Organization Studies, 27 (4), 605. Steven White, S. S. -Y. L. (2005) ‘Distinguishing costs of cooperation and control in alliances’, Strategic Management Journal, 26 (10), 913-932. Kanter, R. M. (1994) ‘Collaborative Advantage: The Art of Alliances’, Harvard Business Review, 72 (4), 96-108. Structure of industries and markets and the general government and business context Miller, D. and Friesen, P.
H. (1983) ‘Strategy-making and environment: The third link’, Strategic Management Journal, 4 (3), 221-235. Selsky, J. W. , Goes, J. and Baburoglu, O. N. (2007) ‘Contrasting Perspectives of Strategy Making: Applications in ‘Hyper’ Environments’, Organization Studies, 28 (1), 71-94. Bourgeois, L. J. (1980) ‘Strategy and environment: a conceptual integration’, Academy of Management Review, 5 (1), 25-39. Strategy as practice, ANT, CoP Hendry, J. (2000) ‘Strategic decision-making, discourse, and strategy as social practice’, Journal of Management Studies, 37 (7), 955–977. Moisander, J. and Stenfos, S. 2009) ‘Exploring the edges of theory-practice gap: epistemic cultures in strategy-tool development and use’, Organization, 16 (2), 227-247. Hutzschenreuter, T. and Kleindienst, I. (2006) ‘Strategy-process research: what we have learned and what is still to be explored’, Journal of Management 32 (5), 673-720. Hendry, J. (2000) ‘Strategic decision-making, discourse, and strategy as social practice’, Journal of Management Studies, 37 (7), 955–977. Organisational Purpose and Stakeholders Augier, M. and March, j. g. (2001) ‘Conflict of interest in theories of the organization: Herbert A. Simon and Oliver E.
Williamson’, Journal of Management and Governance, 5 (3/4), 223-230. Williamson, O. E. and Haas, W. A. (1999 ) ‘Strategy research: Governance and competence perspectives’, Strategic Management Journal, 20 (12), 1087-1108. Huff, A. S. (2000) ‘Changes in organizational knowledge production’, Academy of Management Review, 25 (2), 288-293. Rocha, H. O. and Ghoshal, S. (2006) ‘Beyond self-interest revisited’, Journal of Management Studies, 43 (3), 585-61. MMUBS’ referencing standard Examples of references for different source materials using MMUBS’ referencing standard (a style of the Harvard system of referencing)
A document is available (electronically in your Moodle areas) providing instruction on applying the MMUBS Harvard referencing standard to your work – this includes detailed instruction on how to cite from and reference different sources. Book Huczynski, A. A. and Buchanan, D. A. (2007) Organizational behaviour: An introductory text. 6th ed. , Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall. Book chapter Gordon, R. , Druckman, D. , Rozelle, R. and Baxter, J. (2006) ‘Non-verbal behaviour as communication: Approaches, issues and research. ’ In: O. Hargie. (Ed. ) The handbook of communication skills.
London: Routledge, pp. 73-119. Journal article Hass, M. (2006) ‘Knowledge Gathering, Team Capabilities, and Project Performance in Challenging Work Environments. ’ Management science, Vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 1170-1184. Internet source – author Kennedy, J. (2008) Contract Killer. Directory of Social Change [Online] [Accessed on 6th August 2008] http://www. dsc. org. uk/NewsandInformation/News/Contractshindercharities Internet source – organisation Business in the Community. (2008) Skills boost for North West companies. [Online] [Accessed on 5th August 2008] http://www. bitc. org. k/news_media/skills_boost_for. html Newspaper article – paper copy Milmo, D. (2008) ‘Ryanair launches price war as sales slump. ’ The Guardian. 8th August. p25. Newspaper article – Internet copy Wray, R. (2008) ‘Sony buys Bertelsmann out of joint music business. ’ The Guardian. [Online] 6th August. [Accessed on 11th August 2008] http://www. guardian. co. uk/business/2008/aug/06/musicindustry. sony Government command paper Department of Trade and Industry. (2005) Our energy future: Creating a low carbon economy. Cmnd. 5761, London: TSO. Act of Parliament Companies Act 2006. (c. 46) London: HMSO.
Dissertation Paucar-Caceres, A. (2006) Business culture and management science methodologies in England and France. Ph. D. Manchester Metropolitan University. introductory text. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall. (For instruction on citing secondary sources, see the referencing standard document for MMUBS) Report ECOTEC. (2003) Guidance on Mapping Social Enterprise: Final Report to the DTI Social Enterprise Unit. London: ECOTEC Research and Consulting Ltd. (C2453). (When referencing a report, if there is no report code or number on the report that you have used, leave this field blank. )