Cross Culture Management Exam Questions with Answers
Chapter 1 Q. 1. please, provide TWO examples which show that people around the world are still very different from each other, despite advances in technology and transportation. 1. In England children need to wear uniforms at school, but in Latvian schools nobody wears them. 2. Black schools and white schools still exist, as well as schools on religion Q. 2. Please give ONE example that shows that management is not the same everywhere around the world. 1.
In China for example, business ppl don’t like to sign papers, they are more open for mutual trust, if u want to sign paper with them, they will think that u don’t trust them, but In Eu or Usa everything must be signed and written down to ensure that there won’t be any problems. Q. 3. Please explain why some Chinese negotiators among themselves refer to their western counterparts as harmless barbarians. Chinese ppl evaluate only their own culture, and because of the culture differences towards theirs aren’t the same, they criticise western culture. If u want to do business with Chinese then u will need to understand them, they won’t do anything. ) Q. 4. Please explain the 4 quadrants of the Johari window in your own words. Q. 5. ONE advantage and ONE disadvantage of having stereotypes Advantage: Help process new information by comparing it with past experience and knowledge. Disadvantage: It blocks our mental ‘’file’’ we make our mindless open for other knowledge or information. Therefore we think things about people that might not be true Chapter 2 Q. 1. More important than observing behaviour is understanding the meaning of that behaviour.
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Please explain this statement and provide two examples. Observing behaviour is not enough. What is important is the meaning of that behaviour. This distinction is important as the same behaviour can have different meanings and different behaviours can have the same meaning. Example: Eye contact in Western culture means showing trust and honesty whereas in Asia it is a sign of disrespect and aggression. Example: In Usa showing OK sign with fingers means – approving smth, but in Brazil it means – literally “screw you” Q. 2. Please, explain the three layers of this model and give an example of each layer 1.
Artefacts and behaviour – by observing (greeting rituals, dress code, use of titles of first and last name) 2. Beliefs and values (the way things are) – by interviews and surveys (getting know the meaning of behaviour) 3. Assumptions (space, language, time) – Interference and interpretation (distance between people as expressed in greeting rituals and ways of interacting) Q. 3. Please, choose a cultural artefact and explain its underlying belief/values. Dress code – For every culture there is different meaning in business dress codes: 1.
USA – rolled up sleeves are considered a signal of getting down to business 2. Germany – Always wearing casual form even if it’s really hot – showing that they are here to work 3. French – reluctant to remove ties and jackets – because it’s official meeting Q. 4. Saying that our colleagues are late to a meeting because they are Latin misses the point. Please explain why. For example: is time seen as past/present or future assumption or monochromic / polychromic in Latin. Thus we need to better understand the behaviour observed to appreciate each other. Chapter 3 Q. 1.
Please explain the 5 dimensions of Hofstede Q. 3. Space: Public (group oriented) vs. Private (more task-cantered); Time orientation: Past, Present, Future; Action: doing vs. being; Time focus: monochromic vs. polychromic; Communication: high-context vs. low context. Q. 4. 3 characteristics of high context communication and 3 characteristics of low context communication. High: other things have to be considered ( listener has to read between the line when listening to a person or reading sth. 1. Reading “between the lines” 2. Influenced by closeness of human relationships 3.
Not everything is explicitly stated Low: Explicit orders given by person, listener doesn’t have to listen or read between the lines. 1. Meanings are explicitly stated in text. 2. Direct and linear communication. 3. Based on feelings CH 5. Q. 1. Please, explain the differences between the rational analytic approach and the subjective approach. Which approach do you prefer and why? I prefer rational analytic approach, because it’s more based on facts and figures, since it is more important when making decisions. Q. 2. Please describe 3 characteristics of each strategy. 1. Controlling model is more objective, more specific and low context. . Adapting model – more flexible, more qualitative, information gathered from personal sources like friends and colleagues. Q. 3. Please, provide 3 concrete examples of cultural differences you might have to deal with in a merger process. 1. Americans working with Japanese ppl; 2. The meaning of behaviour; (Brazilians and Americans) 3. Q. 4. In what ways may differences in national culture hinder or facilitate internationalization efforts (page 139 – 141)? Notion of culture distance explains it as the greater the difference in home versus host country culture, the greater potential difficulties.
Chapter 7 Q. 1. Which four cross cultural competences for managing differences abroad can be distinguished? Explain each competence in a few lines 1. Awareness of one’s cultural worldview 2. Attitude towards cultural differences 3. Knowledge of different cultural practices and worldviews 4. Cross-cultural skills Q. 3. Please, explain the different phases of a culture shock. 1. An initial stage of elation and optimism (the honeymoon) 2. A period of irritability, frustration, and confusion (the morning after) 3. And then a gradual adjustment to the new environment (happily ever after)
Ch. 8 Mention ONE disadvantage and TWO disadvantages of a multicultural team. Do they tend to perform much better or worse than monoculture teams? Please explain your answer. Disadvantages: greater potential for frustration and dissatisfaction; richness of the diversity make interpersonal conflict and communication problems; different cultural assumptions. Advantages: contribute to new ways of looking at old problems, creating the opportunity for greater creativity and innovation The problem is ‘how to get settled’ or how to arrive at a common ground.
Diverse groups have to confront differences in attitudes, values, behavior, experience, background, expectations, and even language. The ocean metaphor is used in the book several times. How can you link each level of the ocean metaphor to the strategies for managing tasks? Artifacts (level 1) such as the use of titles of first and last name, the presence and form of agenda, amount of social vs. task orientated. The beliefs and values (level 2) are indicated in discussions regarding the roles of the leader (hierarchy) and the structure of meetings. The underlying assumption (level 3) has to do with the use of power, individualism.