Developmental Psychology and Children

Practice Guidance for the Early Years Foundation Stage May 2008 Setting the Standards for Learning, Development and Care for children from birth to five STATUTORY FRAMEWORK NON-STATUTORY GUIDANCE Practice Guidance for the Early Years Foundation Stage Contents Section 1 – Implementing the EYFS ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦

Introduction Putting the Principles into practice General points on provision of the EYFS Meeting the diverse needs of children Partnership working Flexible provision Play Quality improvement – a continuous process The characteristics of a continuously improving setting Transition, continuity and coherence Guidance from the end of the EYFS to Years 6 and 7 05 05 06 06 06 06 07 08 08 10 10

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Section 2 – Learning and Development ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ Overview of the Learning and Development guidance Development matters Look, listen and note Effective practice Planning and resourcing Assessment 11 11 11 12 12 12 The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 00266-2008BKT-EN © Crown copyright 2008 03 Practice Guidance for the Early Years Foundation Stage Contents Section 3 – Welfare requirements ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦

Overview of the welfare requirements Safeguarding and promoting children’s welfare Key person Suitable people Staffing arrangements to ensure safety, and to meet the needs of children Children aged three and over in maintained schools (except for those in reception classes) Children attending reception classes Group size Staffing large groups of children and mixed age groups Examples of staff:child ratios in mixed-age groups Suitable premises, environment and equipment Documentation 14 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 18 19 20 21

Glossary 22 Appendix 1 – Criteria for effective paediatric first aid training 23 Appendix 2 – Areas of Learning and Development 24 04 The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 00266-2008BKT-EN © Crown copyright 2008 Section 1: Implementing the EYFS Introduction 1. 1 This booklet provides guidance for practitioners on meeting the requirements of the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) framework. It aims to provide useful advice and detailed information on supporting children’s learning and development and welfare.

The guidance looks in more detail at how to implement the learning and development requirements and the welfare requirements in the Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage document. There is also guidance on children’s development, what to look out for, effective practice and useful hints on planning and resourcing. The sections in ‘Development matters’ and ‘Look, listen and note’ also support the continuous assessment that practitioners must undertake.

Of course, these sections are not intended to be exhaustive – different children will do different things at different times – and they should not be used as checklists. The Practice Guidance for the Early Years Foundation Stage booklet is part of the EYFS package of materials and should be used alongside the: Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage booklet (the legal requirements and statutory guidance); EYFS resources for providers and practitioners (CD-ROM, poster and Principles into Practice cards).

The Principles into Practice cards provide easy-to-use information about effective practice across the themes of the EYFS. They are arranged into the four guiding themes which put the requirements into context, and describe how practitioners should support the development, learning and care of young children. The cards include lots of information, hints and further questions to prompt reflection and provide useful pointers for practitioners in their day-to-day work with children. The EYFS poster shows you at a glance how the EYFS Principles support effective practice in the EYFS.

The EYFS CD-ROM contains all of the written documents in the pack plus in-depth information on the EYFS, including video material, examples of effective practice and information about supporting every child’s development. It also has lots of references and website links to further information and reading to support your work. The CD-ROM will help you to use the EYFS effectively and provides opportunities for ongoing self-training and development. Additionally, the CD-ROM information will be available on the Teachernet website www. teachernet. gov. uk, where you can also access the most up-to-date links and information on the EYFS. . 2 1. 3 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ Putting the Principles into practice 1. 4 The principles which guide the work of all early years practitioners are grouped into four themes: A Unique Child – every child is a competent learner from birth who can be resilient, capable, confident and self-assured. Positive Relationships – children learn to be strong and independent from a base of loving and secure relationships with parents and/or a key person. Enabling Environments – the environment plays a key role in supporting and extending children’s development and learning.

Learning and Development – children develop and learn in different ways and at different rates and all areas of Learning and Development are equally important and inter-connected. The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 00266-2008BKT-EN © Crown copyright 2008 05 1. 5 These four guiding themes work together to underpin effective practice in the delivery of the EYFS. They put the legal requirements into context, and describe how practitioners should support the development, learning and care of young children.

The Principles into Practice cards will also support practitioners to plan appropriate activities based on the needs and interests of individual children. There are lots of suggestions for activities that work, with issues raised about challenges and dilemmas practitioners may face in their work. General points on provision of the EYFS 1. 6 The rest of this section breaks down the key issues which are paramount to successful delivery of the EYFS and meeting children’s needs. There are strong links to the cards, and practitioners should think about how the information on the cards can influence their day-to-day work with children. . 2 2. 1 Meeting the diverse needs of children (Principles into Practice cards 1. 7 ) Meeting the individual needs of all children lies at the heart of the EYFS. Practitioners should deliver personalised learning, development and care to help children to get the best possible start in life. The EYFS CD-ROM provides some examples of ways in which you can achieve this. You must promote positive attitudes to diversity and difference within all children. In doing this you will help them to learn to value different aspects of their own and other people’s lives.

This includes making sure that all children and families feel included, safe and valued; that all children and adults are treated as individuals and are not discriminated against; and that all children are listened to and respected. Practitioners must plan for the needs of children from black and other minority ethnic backgrounds, including those learning English as an additional language, and for the needs of any children with learning difficulties or disabilities. Providers must actively avoid gender stereotyping and must challenge any expression of prejudice or discrimination, by children or adults. . 8 1. 9 1. 10 You must plan for each child’s individual care and learning requirements. The focus should be on removing or helping to counter underachievement and overcoming barriers for children where these already exist. You should also identify and respond early to needs which could lead to the development of learning difficulties. There must be appropriate challenges for gifted and talented children. Partnership working (Principles into Practice card 2. 2 ) 1. 11 Early years practitioners have a key role to play in working with parents to support their young children.

This should include identifying learning needs and responding quickly to any difficulties. Wherever appropriate, practitioners should work together with professionals from other agencies, such as local and community health and social services, to identify needs and provide the best learning opportunities for children. Partnership working may be required in particular for a child with disabilities or a child who is looked after in care. 1. 12 Regular information should be provided for parents about activities undertaken by the children; for example, through wall displays, photographs and examples of children’s work.

Flexible provision (Principles into Practice cards 1. 1 3. 4 ) 1. 13 Many children will receive education and care under the EYFS framework in more than one setting. Some may attend part-time, while others may attend full-time and also use extended services, such as breakfast or after-school clubs. These patterns of attendance will be a key factor in planning. For children who attend more than one setting, practitioners must ensure effective continuity and progression by sharing relevant information with each other and parents.

The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 00266-2008BKT-EN © Crown copyright 2008 06 1. 14 You should also take into account the differing needs of individual children within the setting and tailor your approach to each child’s needs. For example, some children may find it very tiring to concentrate for long periods and need frequent pauses and rests, while others may benefit from longer sessions. 1. 15 Providers who care for children over relatively short periods of time are responsible for delivering the EYFS in an appropriate way that meets the needs of the children.

They should make sure that what they provide complements the education and care the child receives in other settings. Play (Principles into Practice cards 3. 3 4. 1 ) 1. 16 Play underpins the delivery of all the EYFS. Children must have opportunities to play indoors and outdoors. All early years providers must have access to an outdoor play area which can benefit the children. If a setting does not have direct access to an outdoor play area then they must make arrangements for daily opportunities for outdoor play in an appropriate nearby location.

The EYFS CD-ROM also contains information suggesting innovative ways to engage children in outdoor play. 1. 17 Play underpins all development and learning for young children. Most children play spontaneously, although some may need adult support, and it is through play that they develop intellectually, creatively, physically, socially and emotionally. 1. 18 Providing well-planned experiences based on children’s spontaneous play, both indoors and outdoors, is an important way in which practitioners support young children to learn with enjoyment and challenge.

In playing, children behave in different ways: sometimes their play will be responsive or boisterous, sometimes they may describe and discuss what they are doing, sometimes they will be quiet and reflective as they play. 1. 19 The EYFS requires providers to ensure a balance of child-initiated and adult-led play-based activities. Providers should use their judgement and their knowledge of the children in their care in deciding what the balance should be. When a child engages in a self chosen pursuit, this is childinitiated activity.

For example, a child might elect to play with a fire engine – fitting the driver behind the steering wheel, extracting the driver, replacing the driver, throwing the driver back into a box and introducing a different driver. Another instance of a child-initiated choice may be where a child takes ownership of an activity and ‘subverts’ it to a different purpose than intended. For example, a child might prefer to pour water into a hole to make a puddle rather than watering the plants as the adult intended.

Other child-initiated activities may be instigated when the child brings something to the setting – such as an experience of having been on a bus or visiting hospital. This might lead to the provision of resources, stories and pictures to support this interest. Whatever children bring is an indication of their current interest and should be supported. 1. 20 Small group times are good example of an adult-led activity – the adult has selected the time to encourage a particular aspect of learning, or discuss a particular topic.

The adult may introduce a particular material, skill or idea. Often when an adult initiates an activity, for example demonstrates the skill of weaving, the child’s need for adult involvement will decrease over time as they master the skill. 1. 21 The role of the practitioner is crucial in: ¦ ¦ observing and reflecting on children’s spontaneous play; building on this by planning and resourcing a challenging environment which: – supports and extends specific areas of children’s learning; – extends and develops children’s language and communication in their play.

The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 00266-2008BKT-EN © Crown copyright 2008 07 1. 22 Through play, in a secure but challenging environment with effective adult support, children can: ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ explore, develop and represent learning experiences that help them to make sense of the world; practise and build up ideas, concepts and skills; learn how to understand the need for rules; take risks and make mistakes; think creatively and imaginatively; communicate with others as they investigate or solve problems. Quality improvement – a continuous process 1. 3 Research shows that high quality experiences in the early years, including a good home learning environment, have a significant positive impact on children’s social, emotional and cognitive development and, therefore, their progress at school and into adult life. It is vitally important that early years provision is of a consistently high standard, and that providers continually look for ways to improve the quality of the learning, development and care they offer. 1. 24 At a basic level, high quality early years provision can be defined as a provision which: ¦ ¦ mproves outcomes for every child through high aspiration and effective practice; provides personalised learning, development and support – tailored to the needs of individual 2. 3 ); children (Principles into Practice card builds the foundations for future success; involves parents in their children’s learning and development (Principles into Practice card 2. 2 ¦ ¦ ). The characteristics of a continuously improving setting 1. 25 There are a number of factors that contribute to high quality provision – and the most important is the quality of the workforce. 1. 26 In a continuously improving setting the leader will: ¦ ¦ ave energy, enthusiasm and a principled educational vision; employ a whole setting approach, support collaborative working and the collective identification and clear expression of pedagogical objectives related to the EYFS framework that promote achievement for all children; recognise the value of continuous quality improvement and how it impacts on children’s achievement – engaging with local authority early years consultants and advisory teachers; use the Ofsted self-evaluation form and quality improvement processes as the basis of ongoing internal review – assessing what the setting offers against robust and challenging quality criteria; ¦ 08 The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 00266-2008BKT-EN © Crown copyright 2008 ¦ raw on the full range of quality improvement tools available – for example, the Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scales (ECERS – E & A); Key Elements of Effective Practice (Primary National Strategies); Babies’ Effective Early Learning (BEEL); and the Leuven scale of children’s well-being and involvement1; lead a collaborative learning culture – providing time and space for knowledge-sharing and support for continuous professional development for all staff; lead and encourage a culture of reflective practice, self-evaluation and informed discussion to identify the setting’s strengths and priorities for development that will improve the quality of provision for all children. ¦ ¦ 1. 27 A continuously improving setting will have well-qualified and experienced staff who: ¦ re appropriately trained, with up-to-date skills and qualifications; who are motivated and supported to further raise their skills and qualification level to level 3 and beyond; engage in regular cycles of planning and review, informed by accurate record keeping, including information on children’s learning progress, and the EYFS Profile; understand and engage in informed reflective practice – both individually and in groups; work collaboratively within the setting to share knowledge, question practice and test new ideas – with high aspirations for every child; support quality improvement processes in the setting – recognising how these processes can extend effective practice and help improve outcomes for every child; are keen to share best practice with other practitioners through local, regional and national networking; work together with other practitioners and parents to support transition, both between settings and between setting and school; are committed to the development of sustained shared thinking by offering encouragement, clarifying ideas and asking open questions which support and xtend children’s thinking and help them make connections in learning – while ensuring a balance between adult-led and childinitiated activities; work in partnership with parents – sharing information and involving them in their child’s continuous learning and development. 1. 1 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ 1. 28 Practice will be inclusive, where: (Principles into Practice cards ¦ ¦ and 1. 2 ) children are valued as unique individuals and diversity is respected; provision is personalised – offering support tailored according to individual needs, taking into account children having English as an additional language, special educational needs or disability and the gifted and talented. 1 Providers wanting more information about quality improvement tools should contact the early years adviser at their local authority. The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 00266-2008BKT-EN © Crown copyright 2008 09 1. 9 There will be a safe and stimulating environment, which: (Principles into Practice cards 3. 2 and 3. 3 ) ¦ ¦ promotes physical, mental and emotional health and well-being; has enough space to play and opportunities to be outdoors with freedom to explore and be physically active; has dynamic and flexible systems of physical organisation that support personalised learning for all children, including the gifted and talented and children with special educational needs/disabilities; provides continuity of care that enables children to identify with key workers and develop 2. 4 ). relationships at all levels (Principles into Practice card ¦ ¦ Transition, continuity and coherence 1. 0 A high quality early years experience provides a firm foundation on which to build future academic, social and emotional success. Key to this is ensuring continuity between all settings and that children’s social, emotional and educational needs are addressed appropriately. Transition should be seen as a process, not an event, and should be planned for and discussed with children and parents. Settings should communicate information which will secure continuity of experience for the child between settings. Schools should use the summative assessment of each child recorded in the EYFS Profile to support planning for learning in Year 1. Year 1 teachers should be familiar with the EYFS and likewise EYFS teachers should be familiar with the KS1 curriculum.

Gifted and talented children should be included in the school’s Gifted and Talented Register. Guidance from the end of the EYFS to Years 6 and 7 1. 31 The Primary Framework for literacy and mathematics: The Primary Framework for literacy and mathematics provides guidance for practitioners working with children from the end of the EYFS to Year 6 and into Year 7. It covers the areas of speaking and listening, reading, writing and mathematics. The Framework reflects the recommendations from the review of early reading, and in particular that systematic high-quality phonic work should be the prime means for teaching children to read and spell words.

The review confirmed that for most children such work should begin by age five, subject to the principled professional judgements of practitioners. The activities and approaches in Communication, Language and Literacy help to prepare children for starting phonic work, particularly the development of speaking and listening skills. 1. 32 The guidance provided in the Framework for children aged from three to five is an overview of what is in the EYFS. The learning objectives for this section in the Framework are the early learning goals and a few additional statements from Communication, Language and Literacy and Problem Solving, Reasoning and Numeracy.

These early learning goals and statements are also listed under the ‘learning strands’ of both literacy and mathematics frameworks, so that practitioners can see how the EYFS feeds into literacy and mathematics teaching in KS1. 1. 33 The Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning resource: The Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL) programme provides a framework for developing children’s social and emotional skills from the EYFS right through primary school. It is the DCSF recommended social and emotional learning programme for all primary school children, and is also available to state nurseries with EYFS children. 10 The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 00266-2008BKT-EN © Crown copyright 2008 Section 2: Learning and Development (Principles into Practice cards 4. 1 – 4. ) Overview of the Learning and Development guidance 2. 1 Each section of the areas of Learning and Development offers examples of the types of activities and experiences that children might be involved in as they progress and which practitioners could refer to when they are planning. There is also support for continuous assessment that practitioners must undertake. These sections are not intended to be exhaustive – different children will do different things at different times – and they should not be used as checklists. The Learning and Development sections are split into four columns that represent the ongoing cycle of thinking about development and assessing children’s progress.

These will support and enable practitioners to provide opportunities for children to play, learn and succeed in an atmosphere of care and feeling valued. The four columns are: Development matters; Look, listen and note; Effective practice; and Planning and resourcing. Information on each column is provided below. Practitioners must be familiar with the content of the areas of Learning and Development in order to support children’s learning and development. This guidance begins in Appendix 2 on page 24. 2. 2 Development matters 2. 3 The Development matters column identifies the developing knowledge, skills, understanding and attitudes that children will need if they are to achieve the early learning goals by the end of the EYFS.

It is important to note that children will not necessarily progress sequentially through the stages, since these do not represent age-related goals. Some elements may appear to have been achieved very quickly, others will take much longer. As children move from one element to another, they take with them what they have already achieved and continue to practise, refine and build on their previous development and learning. Within the Development matters column the early learning goals are indicated in bold print. The statutory early learning goals establish expectations for most children to reach by the end of the reception year. By the end of the EYFS, some children will have exceeded the goals, while others will be working towards some or all of them. 2. 4 2. 5 Look, listen and note 2. Practitioners’ observations of children help them to assess the progress which children are making. Observations help practitioners to decide where children are in their learning and development and to plan what to do. This is an essential part of daily practice in any setting, regardless of the age of the baby or child. Looking, listening and noting is important because it helps you to: get to know a child better and develop positive relationships with children and their parents; plan appropriate play and learning experiences based on the children’s interests and needs, and identify any concerns about a child’s development; further develop your understanding of a child’s development; ¦ ¦ ¦

The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 00266-2008BKT-EN © Crown copyright 2008 11 ¦ ¦ develop a systematic and routine approach to using observations; use assessment to plan the next steps in a child’s developmental progress and regularly review this approach. Further information on record keeping and recording assessments can be found on the EYFS CD-ROM. Effective practice 2. 7 By using the information on Learning and Development to support continuous observational assessment practitioners will form a view of where each child is in their learning, where they need to go, and the most effective practice to support them in getting there.

The guidance on effective practice to support children’s development is based on the EYFS Principles and the examples given illustrate just some of the possibilities. The column provides ideas on activities and initiatives that practitioners can engage in to support and extend children’s learning and development, based on their interests and needs. As well as leading activities and encouraging child-led activities, you should support and extend all children’s development and learning by being an active listener and joining in and intervening when appropriate. The EYFS CD-ROM and the cards both give further examples of effective practice. 3. 1

Planning and resourcing (Principles into Practice card 2. 8 ) Good planning is the key to making children’s learning effective, exciting, varied and progressive. It enables practitioners to build up knowledge about how individual children learn and make progress. It also provides opportunities for you to think and talk about how to sustain a successful learning environment. This process works best when all practitioners working in the setting are involved. Practitioners who work alone will benefit from opportunities to discuss their plans with others working in similar circumstances. Planning should include all children, including those with additional needs.

However, it is important to remember that no plan written weeks in advance can include a group’s interest in a spider’s web on a frosty morning or a particular child’s interest in transporting small objects in a favourite blue bucket, yet it is these interests which may lead to some powerful learning. Plans should therefore be flexible enough to adapt to circumstances. 3. 1 2. 9 Assessment (Principles into Practice card ) 2. 10 All effective assessment involves analysing and reviewing what you know about each child’s development and learning. You can then make informed decisions about the child’s progress and plan next steps to meet their development and learning needs. This is called assessment for learning. Formative assessment is the type of assessment based on observations, photographs, video, things children have made or drawn and information from parents. It informs or guides everyday planning. – Summative assessment is a summary of all the formative assessment done over a long period and makes statements about the child’s achievements. The EYFS Profile is the summative assessment completed by practitioners at the end of the EYFS. It summarises children’s progress towards the early learning goals. It can also be formative in that it informs and guides the medium- and long-term planning done by Year 1 teachers in order to support and extend children’s learning as they move into KS1. 12 The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 00266-2008BKT-EN © Crown copyright 2008 2. 1 The EYFS Profile scales booklet is available for practitioners to use to help them assess children’s development. However, you can use your own records to compile a Profile for each child, as long as your approach is consistent with the early learning goals. You can use your professional judgement to decide how much record keeping is necessary to support your assessments. However, you must undertake the EYFS Profile for all children of an appropriate age and assess them through observational assessment against the 13 scales and report 13 scores for each child. 2. 12 You also have the option of using the eProfile which is an electronic version of the EYFS Profile scales booklet.

This can be obtained from your local authority but you will need to make sure that your local authority is able to provide the necessary IT assistance before downloading the software. 2. 13 The Assessment and Reporting Arrangements (ARA) booklet sets out the statutory assessment and reporting arrangements for the EYFS, along with information on arrangements for submitting data to local authorities. It is reviewed annually and issued to practitioners by the QCA, and is also available online. A weblink is available on the EYFS CD-ROM www. qca. org. uk 2. 14 The Common Assessment Framework (CAF) enables effective communication between the various agencies involved with children who have additional needs, or a child about whom there are concerns.

It is used alongside the formative and summative assessment described above. The CAF can be found on the EYFS CD-ROM. The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 00266-2008BKT-EN © Crown copyright 2008 13 Section 3: Welfare requirements Overview of the welfare requirements 3. 1 Children learn best when they are healthy, safe and secure, when their individual needs are met and when they have positive relationships with the adults caring for them. The welfare requirements are designed to support providers in creating a setting which is welcoming, safe and stimulating, and where children are able to enjoy themselves, to grow in confidence and to fulfil their potential.

The statutory framework sets out the legal requirements which cover safeguarding and ensuring children’s welfare, staff, premises, environment and equipment, organisation, documentation and reporting. It also contains statutory guidance which providers must take into account when seeking to fulfil the legal requirements. Additional support for providers is set out below in the form of guidance and information on delivering some aspects of the legal requirements. 3. 2 Safeguarding and promoting children’s welfare 3. 3 The welfare requirements within the Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage require providers to take the necessary steps to safeguard and promote the welfare of children in their care. In particular they are required to implement an effective safeguarding children policy.

An effective policy will include: roles and responsibilities of individual practitioners and managers in safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children; the name of a practitioner who has lead responsibility for safeguarding children, plus their role and responsibilities; the steps to be taken when a concern about a child’s welfare or safety is raised, including how this will be recorded; the procedure for referring concerns about a child’s welfare to local statutory children’s services agencies, social services or the police; procedures to be followed in the event of an allegation being made against a member of staff or volunteer; arrangements for sharing information with parents about safeguarding children procedures prior to their child joining the setting; how and under what circumstances parents will be informed about concerns and any actions taken; how confidentiality and information sharing will be managed; how practitioners’ knowledge of safeguarding children will be kept up-to-date, for instance by including issues in induction training and providing regular access to training in safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children. ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦

Providers should follow the guidelines set out in the booklet What To Do If You’re Worried A Child is Being Abused, produced by the DCSF. A link is provided on the EYFS CD-ROM. 14 The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 00266-2008BKT-EN © Crown copyright 2008 Key person (Principles into Practice card 3. 4 2. 4 ) Each child in a group setting must be assigned a key person – in childminding settings the childminder is the key person. A key person has special responsibilities for working with a small number of children, giving them the reassurance to feel safe and cared for and building relationships with their parents. A key person will help the baby or child to become familiar with the setting and to feel confident and safe within it.

They will also talk to parents to make sure that the needs of the child are being met appropriately, and that records of development and progress are shared with parents and other professionals as necessary. Even when children are older and can hold key people from home in mind for longer, there is still a need for them to have a key person to depend on in the setting, such as their teacher or a teaching assistant. Suitable people 3. 5 All people aged 16 or over who work with children or who are to have regular contact with them must be suitable to do so. In childminding settings Ofsted checks the suitability of the childminder and of any other people aged 16 or over living or working on the premises.

In other types of registered settings: Ofsted checks the suitability of the registered provider and the manager. Where the provider is a company, partnership or other unincorporated association, Ofsted will check the nominated individual. Where that provider’s sole or main purpose is the provision of childcare, Ofsted will check all the people who are directors, partners or other officers of the provider. The welfare requirements on page 29 of the Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage require the provider to check the suitability of all other people who work with the children, or who live or work on the premises where the childcare is provided.

They must obtain an enhanced Criminal Records Bureau (CRB) Disclosure in respect of all new members of staff or volunteers and all new people who live or work on the premises. There are a number of routes through which providers can obtain such disclosure, and further information can be obtained from the CRB website www. crb. gov. uk In maintained and independent schools, the employer is responsible for checking suitability and for ensuring appropriate checks are carried out and should follow the guidance in Safeguarding Children and Safer Recruitment in Education. Other providers may also find the guidance in chapter 4 of this publication – Recruitment and Vetting Checks – helpful.

Providers should be satisfied that supply staff, including those supplied by an agency, have had an enhanced CRB check. Providers are not required to carry out CRB checks in respect of people who have not reached the age of 16, e. g. young people on a work experience placement. The provider should be satisfied that such people are suitable for the work they will undertake during their placement and should ensure that they are supervised appropriately. 3. 6 3. 7 ¦ ¦ 3. 8 3. 9 3. 10 Until 2001, local authorities were responsible for the registration and inspection of childcare and, as part of this, for checking the suitability of those involved in the provision of childcare.

In 2001, Ofsted took on the responsibility for registration and inspection, and for checking suitability. Since October 2005, providers (other than childminders) have been responsible for checking the suitability of practitioners and other people living or working on the premises. Ofsted has retained responsibility for checking the suitability of those in childminding settings and the provider and manager in other registered settings. Therefore, providers may not have records of checks carried out before October 2005 but should retain any records that they do have from this time. The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 00266-2008BKT-EN © Crown copyright 2008 15

The welfare requirements on page 29 of the Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage booklet require providers to keep records of all checks carried out from September 2008 onwards. 3. 11 Accessible individual records should be kept on the premises and should contain the name and address of the staff members, any volunteers and committee members, and information about their recruitment, training and qualifications. 3. 12 It is an offence under Section 76 of the Childcare Act 2006 to employ in connection with early years provision someone who is disqualified from registration. Details of what disqualifies people from registration are set out in regulations made under section 75 of the Childcare Act 2006. Some of the things that disqualify people from registration are: ¦ ¦ ¦ onvictions, cautions, reprimands or warnings for an offence against a child; convictions, cautions, reprimands or warnings for certain violent or sexual offences against an adult; being on the Protection of Children Act list (POCA) of persons considered unsuitable to work with children; being on the DCSF list of people who are considered not suitable to work with children; being made the subject of a disqualifying order; where someone else who lives or is employed in the same household is disqualified from registration. ¦ ¦ ¦ 3. 13 People who are disqualified from registration may sometimes still work with children by applying to Ofsted for a waiver, providing they are able to demonstrate that they do not pose a risk of harm to children.

The provider should apply and obtain clearance on behalf of the disqualified person before employing them. Ofsted cannot waive a disqualification for people who are included on the POCA list, if a direction has been made against the person under section 142 of the Education Act 2002, or if a disqualification order has been made by the court. 3. 14 Early years providers who think that someone they are considering employing is the subject of a conviction, caution, reprimand or warning that may disqualify them from registration can talk confidentially about this with Ofsted by calling its helpline on tel: 08456 40 40 40. They should also call this number to apply for a disqualification to be waived. 3. 5 Providers should be aware that systems change, and they need to keep up-to-date with the new procedures which will come into force. The Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006 provides the legislative framework for a new Independent Safeguarding Authority scheme which will prevent those who are unsuitable to do so from working with children, young people and vulnerable adults. Further information about the Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act and the Independent Safeguarding Authority scheme can be found at www. everychildmatters. gov. uk/ independentsafeguardingauthority and www. isa-gov. org/index. htm Staffing arrangements to ensure safety, and to meet the needs of children 3. 6 Providers must meet the specific requirements for ratios of adults to children set out in Appendix 2 of the Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage booklet. The ratio requirements set out the minimum numbers of staff that are required to be present with the children at any time. Providers are responsible for ensuring the welfare of the children in their care and for ensuring that their needs are met. They should consider at all times whether staffing levels are sufficient to ensure this. It may, according to circumstances, be necessary to exceed the minimum ratio requirements. 16 The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 00266-2008BKT-EN © Crown copyright 2008 3. 7 In provision for children aged three and over in registered settings and independent schools, the 1:13 ratio requirement only applies while the appropriately qualified practitioner (that is, the teacher, Early Years Professional or person holding a relevant level 6 qualification) is present and engaged with the children. 3. 18 Providers should put in place contingency arrangements for staff absences and emergencies. When there is staff absence or an emergency occurs suitable arrangements might include drawing on a pool of suitable staff, re-grouping of children, re-organising rooms and activities and re-deploying other suitable staff. When such disruptions occur there should continue to be a consistent experience for the child. Additional staff and management resources may also be required for undertaking management tasks, preparing meals, domestic tasks, and maintaining premises and equipment.

Children aged three and over in maintained schools (except for those in reception classes) – staffing arrangements during the teacher’s non-contact time and short-term teacher absence 3. 19 Examples of teachers’ non-contact time include planning, preparation and assessment (PPA) time or because he or she is a Newly Qualified Teacher on a reduced timetable. When making arrangements for PPA time, headteachers should have regard to Time for Standards: Guidance accompanying the Section 133 Regulations under the Education Act 2002. 3. 20 For the purposes of the EYFS, short-term absence will include short-term sickness absence and times when the teacher must leave the children briefly e. g. to take an urgent telephone call or to speak to a parent.

It will also include special occasions such as the children’s Christmas party when the teacher’s particular skills and expertise are not necessarily required. Headteachers should exercise their professional judgement in determining what should be regarded as a shortterm absence. Long-term absence should be covered by a teacher. 3. 21 During the teacher’s non-contact time and, wherever possible during short-term teacher absence, one of the remaining members of staff should meet the following conditions: ¦ ¦ they must be assisting or supporting the work of a teacher; they must be subject to the direction and supervision of a qualified teacher in accordance with arrangements made by the headteacher; the headteacher must be satisfied that they have the skills, expertise and experience necessary.

These are the conditions set out in the regulations made under Section 133 of the Education Act 2002 and which must be met by support staff carrying out ‘specified work’2. ¦ Children attending reception classes in maintained schools 3. 22 The EYFS does not place any ratio and qualification requirements on reception classes in maintained schools, provided they fall within the definition of an infant class. An infant class is defined in section 4 of the School Standards and Framework Act 1998 as a class containing pupils the majority of whom will reach the age of five, six or seven during the course of the school year. Such classes are subject to infant class size legislation (the School Standards and Framework Act 1998 as amended by the

Education Act 1998) which limits the size of an infant class to 30 pupils per ‘school teacher’. 2 For more information see Time for Standards: Guidance accompanying the Section 133 Regulations issued under the Education Act 2002 which is available at: www. teachernet. gov. uk/_doc/11731/Time%20for%20Standards%202007. pdf The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 00266-2008BKT-EN © Crown copyright 2008 17 3. 23 Where a reception class does not fall within the definition of an infant class because the children are too young i. e. the majority of children will not reach the age of five during the school year, then the ratio and qualification requirements for children aged three and over in maintained schools will apply. 3. 4 However, children attending reception classes are part of the EYFS. Depending on school admissions arrangements children may be starting reception class shortly after their fourth birthday. Children attending at this age need special consideration to ensure that their particular needs are met and that they receive a high quality learning experience. Support staff can play an important role in this. Many schools already consider it good practice to employ full time support staff to work alongside teachers in reception classes. Group size 3. 25 Except in the case of reception classes in maintained schools, the size of a group or class should not normally exceed 26. 3. 6 Where the size of a group of children aged and three and over in a maintained school (except reception classes) exceeds 26, it is good practice to assign an additional teacher to the class. An additional teacher should always be assigned where the group size exceeds 30. If, in a registered setting, the size of a group of children aged three and over exceeds 26, the ratio requirement of one adult to thirteen children will only apply if two members of staff hold either Qualified Teacher Status or Early Years Professional Status or another suitable level 6 qualification. 3. 27 In some settings, more than one group of children may operate together e. g. school may combine its reception class and nursery class. In such circumstances, it is good practice to segregate children into smaller groups of 26 or fewer for some parts of the day. Staffing large groups of children and mixed age groups 3. 28 The EYFS ratio requirements vary according to the age of the children being cared for and apply to all early years provision except for reception classes in maintained schools. In many early years settings, children are not grouped in ways that directly reflect the way in which these requirements are set out. It may not always be straightforward to apply the ratio requirements in such circumstances. 3. 9 Applying the ratio requirements may be particularly complex where a maintained school operates with a registered early years provider or where the reception class in a maintained school is combined with provision for younger children. 3. 30 In some cases, it may be possible to meet the legal requirements in more than one way. Providers should use their professional judgement in deciding which staffing arrangements are most appropriate for their specific circumstances. In all circumstances, the provider is responsible for ensuring that the legal requirements are met. Staffing must be organised in the optimum manner to ensure children’s safety and meet their individual needs. 3. 31 Examples of how the minimum ratio requirements may apply for varied group sizes are set out below.

This guidance demonstrates how providers can comply with the minimum requirements; however it is important that providers use their professional judgement when considering appropriate staffing arrangements for any type of activity inside or outside the setting. 18 The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 00266-2008BKT-EN © Crown copyright 2008 Examples of staff:child ratios in mixed-age groups Example 1 A group of 40 three- to five-year olds within a maintained school. 12 of the children will reach statutory school age within the academic year. In this example the ratio requirements may be applied in more than one way. This group does not fall within the definition of an infant class, as only a minority of the children will reach statutory school age within the school year.

However, the EYFS recommends that large groups of children such as this should be segregated into smaller groups for parts of the day. Providers may find it helpful to think in terms of the smaller groups the whole group might be broken into, and how those groups could be staffed if they were not part of a larger group. There are a number of ways in which this group may be broken into smaller groups, for example: 1. Two groups of 20 children, with all the children who will reach statutory school age in one group. A group of 20 children, the majority of whom reach statutory school age during the school year, would fall within the definition of an infant class. An infant class of 20 children requires a minimum of one teacher.

A group of 20 children aged three and over, none of whom reach statutory school age within the school year, would not fall within the definition of an infant class. The EYFS would require that it had a minimum of one teacher and one practitioner qualified to level 3. The minimum number of staff required across the two groups would be two teachers and one practitioner qualified to level 3. 2. Two groups of 20 children, with the children who will reach statutory school age divided equally between the two groups. Neither of these groups would fall within the definition of an infant class. The EYFS would require that each group had a minimum of one teacher and one practitioner qualified to level 3.

The minimum number of staff required across the two groups would be two teachers and two practitioners qualified to level 3. The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 00266-2008BKT-EN © Crown copyright 2008 19 Example 2 A group of 38 three- to four-year olds comprising 20 children from a nursery class in a maintained school and 18 children from a registered setting. None of the children will reach statutory school age during the academic year. In deciding how this group should be staffed, it may helpful to think about how each of the constituent parts would be staffed if they operated separately. A nursery class of 20 children would require one teacher and one level 3 practitioner.

In a registered setting, the ratio requirements for a group of 18 three- to five-year olds would vary depending on whether a practitioner holding Qualified Teacher Status, Early Years Professional Status or another suitable level 6 qualification was involved in working directly with the children. If such a practitioner were working with the children, the ratio requirement of 1:13 would apply. A level 3 practitioner would also be required. If the group did not have a QTS/EYPS/level 6, the ratio of 1:8 would apply. The group would also require a level 3 practitioner plus two other practitioners, at least one of whom should be qualified to level 2. Two ways of meeting the requirement would be: 1. 2. One teacher + one QTS/EYPS/level 6 + two level 3 practitioners, or One teacher + two level 3 practitioners + two other practitioners, at least one of whom must be qualified to level 2.

Each provider would be responsible for ensuring that the ratio requirements were met in respect of the children from their setting. Example 3 A class of 28 three- to five-year olds within a maintained school. 20 of the children will reach statutory school age within the academic year. As the majority of the children in this class will reach statutory school age within the school year, this class falls within the definition of an infant class. Infant class size legislation, therefore, limits its size to no more than 30 pupils per teacher. The school may consider it appropriate, particularly as some of the children in the class are only three years old, to assign another member of staff to work alongside the teacher. Suitable premises, environment and equipment 3. 2 An appropriate environment is essential to both safety and effective learning and development. As well as being a safe and secure environment which children are unable to leave unless they are supervised, reasonable adjustments must be made so that premises are suitable for children with disabilities and reflect the ethnic, cultural and social diversity in society. 3. 33 The Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage requires providers to conduct a risk assesment and review it regularly. It is essential that children are provided with safe and secure environments in which to interact and explore rich and diverse learning and development opportunities.

Providers need to ensure that, as well as conducting a formal risk assessment, they constantly reappraise both the environments and activities to which children are being exposed and make necessary adjustments to secure their safety at all times. Providers must ensure that the premises, indoors and outdoors, are safe and secure. This should include appropriate measures such as including indoor and outdoor security as part of any assessment made. For example, ponds, drains, pools or any natural water should be made safe or inaccessible to children. Staff should be aware which doors are locked or unlocked, how to use door alarms and security systems, intercoms and name badges. A good risk assessment will look at risks associated with: 20 The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 00266-2008BKT-EN © Crown copyright 2008 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ oundaries and gates; water hazards, for example ponds, drains and pools; hazardous substances and equipment; hazardous plants; pets and other animals; electricity and gas; the use of socket covers in electrical sockets; doors, windows and glass; floors and stairs; stacked furniture; the kitchen and food preparation/access to the kitchen; hot appliances; hygiene, cleanliness and minimising the risk of infection; outings and trips; fire safety; the condition of prams, pushchairs, highchairs and low chairs; the use of safety harnesses; the condition of toys and other equipment; sandpits and their protection from contamination; furniture, equipment and toys; the arrangements for monitoring children who are sleeping; linens such as bedding and towels; any other relevant areas. 3. 4 Providers should take into account Department of Health advice on reducing the risk of cot death which is available at: www. dh. gov. uk Documentation 3. 35 Group settings will be expected to have written copies of any policies and procedures which are required, for example, to safeguard children, promote equal opportunities and so on. Providers should ensure that all members of staff have been given copies of these policies and procedures as part of their induction, and that they are explained to, and accessible to, all parents. 3. 36 Schools will not be required to have separate policies for the EYFS provided that the requirements are met through their policies which cover children of statutory school age.

Childminders will be expected to ensure that any assistants are aware of all policies and procedures, and that they are able to clearly define them for parents and others as and when requested. However, it will not be necessary for childminders to have written copies of these policies and procedures. The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 00266-2008BKT-EN © Crown copyright 2008 21 Glossary Assessment Through observing children and by making notes when necessary, practitioners can make professional judgements about children’s achievements and decide on the next steps in learning. They can also exchange information with parents about how children are progressing. Attachment Babies and young children actively seek close relationships with their parents and other primary caregivers. See key person.

Childminder An early years childminder provides early years provision on domestic premises for reward. Early years provider A person or setting providing early years provision, for example, a childminder, nursery, school. This will include any person registered on the Early Years Register, and school (maintained and independent) providing early years provision. A company, committee or group may make up the registered person. Key person The named member of staff with whom a child has more contact than other adults. This adult shows a special interest in the child through close personal interaction day-to-day. The key person can help the young child to deal with separation anxiety.

Parents Mothers, fathers, legal guardians and the primary carers of looked-after children. There may also be other significant adults in children’s lives and other relatives who care for them. Practitioner Any adult who works with children in a setting. Special Educational Needs Co-ordinator (SENCO) The responsibilities of the SENCO include ensuring liaison with parents and other professionals in respect of children with special educational needs, and advising and supporting other practitioners in the setting. SEN Code of Practice Provides practical advice to local authorities, maintained schools and early years settings on identifying, assessing and making provision for children with special educational needs.

Setting Any out-of-home provider of education and care for children from birth to five, such as childminders, local authority nurseries, nursery or early years centres, children’s centres, playgroups, pre-schools, or schools in the independent, private or voluntary sector and maintained schools. Staffing ratios The number of adults present in relation to the number of children being cared for. The welfare requirements set minimum ratios of adults to children. Statement of special educational needs Sets out all the child’s special needs and the provision required to meet them. The local authority has a duty to arrange the special educational provision specified in part 3 of the statement. This part of the statement is legally binding. In addition, the statement may also set out non-educational needs and the provision that is required to meet them.

Young child The Childcare Act 2006 defines a child as being a ‘young child’ from birth until the end of August following his or her fifth birthday. 22 The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 00266-2008BKT-EN © Crown copyright 2008 Appendix 1 Criteria for effective paediatric first aid training In order to meet the requirements of the EYFS, paediatric first aid courses must be approved by the local authority in whose area the early years provision is located, and must meet the following criteria: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Training is designed for workers caring for children in the absence of their parents3. The training leading to a certificate or a renewal certificate is a minimum of 12 hours.

The first aid certificate should be renewed every three years. Resuscitation and other equipment includes baby and junior models, as appropriate. Training covers appropriate contents of a first aid box. Training should include recording accidents and incidents. Training should be appropriate to the age of the children being cared for. The course covers the following areas: 8. 1 8. 2 8. 3 8. 4 8. 5 8. 6 8. 7 8. 8 8. 9 8. 10 8. 11 8. 12 8. 13 8. 14 8. 15 8. 16 8. 17 8. 18 8. 19 Planning for first aid emergencies. Dealing with emergencies. Resuscitation procedures appropriate to the age of children being cared for. Recognising and dealing with shock.

Recognising and responding appropriately to anaphylactic shock. Recognising and responding appropriately to electric shock. Recognising and responding appropriately to bleeding. Responding appropriately to burns and scalds. Responding appropriately to choking. Responding appropriately to suspected fractures. Responding appropriately to head, neck and back injuries. Recognising and responding appropriately to cases of poisoning. Responding appropriately to foreign bodies in eyes, ears and noses. Responding appropriately to eye injuries. Responding appropriately to bites and stings. Responding appropriately to the effects of extreme heat and cold.

Responding appropriately to febrile convulsions. Recognising and responding appropriately to the emergency needs of children with chronic medical conditions, including epilepsy, asthma, sickle cell anaemia, diabetes. Recognising and responding appropriately to meningitis and other serious sudden illnesses. 3 Training should also take account of any guidance on first aid for schools issued by the DCSF, and guidance on standard first aid at work training requirements issued by the Health & Safety Executive. The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 00266-2008BKT-EN © Crown copyright 2008 23 Appendix 2: Areas of Learning and Development

This section contains detailed information on the six areas of Learning and Development, which should help you to observe, plan and assess your activities with children based on their individual development and needs. Personal, Social and Emotional Development Requirements Children must be provided with experiences and support which will help them to develop a positive sense of themselves and of others; respect for others; social skills; and a positive disposition to learn. Providers must ensure support for children’s emotional well-being to help them to know themselves and what they can do. What Personal, Social and Emotional Development means for children ¦ For children, being special to someone and well cared for is vital for their physical, social and emotional health and well-being. Being acknowledged and ffirmed by important people in their lives leads to children gaining confidence and inner strength through secure attachments with these people. Exploration within close relationships leads to the growth of self-assurance, promoting a sense of belonging which allows children to explore the world from a secure base. Children need adults to set a good example and to give them opportunities for interaction with others so that they can develop positive ideas about themselves and others. Children who are encouraged to feel free to express their ideas and their feelings, such as joy, sadness, frustration and fear, can develop strategies to cope with new, challenging or stressful situations. ¦ ¦ ¦ Personal, Social and Emotional Development ¦

How settings can effectively implement this area of Learning and Development To give all children the best opportunities for effective development and learning in Personal, Social and Emotional Development practitioners should give particular attention to the following areas. Positive Relationships ¦ ¦ Form warm, caring attachments with children in the group. Establish constructive relationships with parents, with everyone in the setting and with workers from other agencies. Find opportunities to give encouragement to children, with practitioners acting as role models who value differences and take account of different needs and expectations. Plan for opportunities for children to play and learn, sometimes alone and sometimes in groups of varying sizes. ¦ ¦ 24 The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 00266-2008BKT-EN © Crown copyright 2008 Enabling Environments ¦ ¦

Ensure that each child has a key person. Make sure there is time and space for children to concentrate on activities and experiences and to develop their own interests. Provide positive images that challenge children’s thinking and help them to embrace differences in gender, ethnicity, language, religion, culture, special educational needs and disabilities. Establish opportunities for play and learning that acknowledge children’s particular religious beliefs and cultural backgrounds. Support the development of independence skills, particularly for children who are highly dependent upon adult support for personal care. ¦ ¦ ¦ Learning and Development ¦

Plan activities that promote emotional, moral, spiritual and social development together with intellectual development. Provide experiences that help children to develop autonomy and a disposition to learn. Give support and a structured approach to vulnerable children and those with particular behavioural or communication difficulties to help them achieve successful Personal, Social and Emotional Development. Practitioners working in schools will find some further guidance relating to literacy and mathematics at the end of the EYFS and beyond in the Primary framework for literacy and mathematics www. standards. dcsf. gov. uk/primaryframeworks/ ¦ ¦ Personal, Social and Emotional Development The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 00266-2008BKT-EN © Crown copyright 2008 25 Personal, Social and Emotional Development Dispositions and Attitudes 26 ¦ The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 00266-2008BKT-EN © Crown copyright 2008 Development matters Develop an understanding and awareness of themselves. ¦ Learn that they have influence on and are influenced by others. ¦ Learn that experiences can be shared. ¦ Look, listen and note How young babies begin to explore their own movements and the environment in individual ways. ¦ How babies re

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