English Proverbs and Sayings

???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ????? ???????? 9 «?» ?????? ??????? ?. ?. ??????? ????????????: ????????? ?. ?. ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????????, 2010 CONTENTS Introduction …………………………………………………………….. …… …. 3 1. The problem of the definition of proverbs and sayings …….. ………. …. ……4 2. The origin of English proverbs and sayings …………………………………. 5 3. The thematic classification of English proverbs and sayings… ………………. 6 4. The usage of English proverbs and sayings in teaching English 4. pronunciation .. ………………………………………………………. ……7 4. 2 grammar ……………………………………………………………… 8 4. 3 vocabulary ……………………………………………………………. ….. 9 4. 4 speaking skills ………………………………………………………… …. 11 Conclusion … ………………………………………………………… …….. …. 13 References……………………………………………… ……………….. …. ….. 14 Appendix ……………………………………………………………………… …15 INTRODUCTION This research is devoted to such an interesting phenomenon of our life as proverbs and sayings, and English proverbs and sayings in particular. Proverbs and sayings are records of the development of civilization throughout its history.

We strongly believe that to know people’s culture and values, one should study their proverbs. People express their beliefs, customs, habits, knowledge, morals and any other capabilities in their proverbs. Nowadays pupils don’t read much and they don’t show much interest in learning either Russian or English proverbs or sayings. We began to write this work because we know that some children don’t think that English proverbs and sayings are worth learning. We want to prove that English proverbs and sayings can be very useful for learning the language.

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We read books on linguistics and also searched the Internet in order to find some useful information there. The object of our research is the phenomenon of the English proverbs and sayings. The subject of the research is the linguistic value of English proverbs and sayings while learning the language. The goal of the research is to make up a summary of English proverbs and saying which will be useful for teachers and pupils while teaching or learning different aspects of the language. The objectives are: * to study the problem of the definition of proverbs and sayings * to study the origin of English proverbs and sayings to group English proverbs and sayings according to their meaning (thematically) * to analyze the possibility of the usage of English proverbs and sayings in teaching * to make lists of the most useful ones * to find Russian equivalents to English proverbs and sayings Our hypothesis is that English proverbs and sayings can be widely used in teaching different aspects of the language. In this work we used different research methods, such as scientific cognition methods (analysis and synthesis), empirical methods (comparison).

We think that the information acquired during the research is useful for learning and understanding the essence of proverbs and sayings and their role in communication; it develops language competence and encourages people to study the cultural aspect of the English language. 1. The problem of the definition of proverbs and sayings According to Oxford Advances Learner’s Dictionary a proverb is a well-known phrase or sentence that gives advice or says something that is generally true, for example ‘Waste not, want not’.

A saying is a well-known phrase or statement that expresses something about life that most people believe is wise and true: ‘Accidents will happen’, as the saying goes. A saying is something that is said, notable in one respect or another, “a pithy expression of wisdom or truth. There are a number of specific types of saying, and one of them is a proverb – an expression of practical truth or wisdom. A proverb, (from the Latin proverbium), is a simple and concrete saying popularly known and repeated, which expresses a truth, based on common sense or the practical experience of humanity.

They are often metaphorical. A proverb that describes a basic rule of conduct may also be known as a maxim. If a proverb is distinguished by particularly good phrasing, it may be known as an aphorism. The study of proverbs is called: paremiology (from Greek ???????? – paroimia, “proverb”) and can be dated back as far as Aristotle. Paremiography, on the other hand, is the collection of proverbs. Subgenres include proverbial comparisons (“as busy as a bee”), proverbial interrogatives (“Does a chicken have lips? ”) and twin formulas (“give and take”). Typical stylistic features of proverbs are: lliteration (Forgive and forget) parallelism (Nothing ventured, nothing gained) rhyme (When the cat is away, the mice will play) ellipsis (Once bitten, twice shy) Internal features that can be found quite frequently include: hyperbole (All is fair in love and war) paradox (For there to be peace there must first be war) personification (Hunger is the best cook) To make the respective statement more general most proverbs are based on a metaphor. Further typical features of the proverb are its shortness (average: seven words), and the fact that its author is generally unknown (otherwise it would be a quotation).

We should also understand the difference between a proverb and a saying. A proverb distinguishes from a saying by its instructive nature and maturity. Whereas a saying is usually not quite complete and has no conclusion. 2. The origin of English proverbs and sayings The sources of the proverbs and saying are various. Proverbs exist as folk knowledge in many cultures and diffuse across cultural and language boundaries with surprising ease as cultures adopt sayings from other communities and other languages.

At their origin, most proverbs operate in an oral environment, and as such they display many of the same mnemonic traits necessary for purely oral retention and transmission such as alliteration, rhyme, and rhythm. They also display many of the content patterns common in other oral traditions including personification, and hyperbole. In fact most orally transmitted epic poems are constructed from “cliche” proverb building blocks, that is short, well-known and concrete sayings. Proverbs and sayings become part of common knowledge and nation’s heritage and when we use it we don’t think about its origin.

We can suppose that any proverb was created by some definite person in some definite situation, but it’s impossible to find the author of many of them. We think it will be right to say that generally proverbs are of folk origin and their source is the collective intellect of the nation. On the other hand it is quite clear that lots of proverbs and sayings were added by clever people of their times. They say that Shakespeare added more phrases and sayings to the English language than anyone else. It is most likely that lots of them had existed before but not in such an easy to remember form.

However, both sources – folk and literary – are intertwined closely together and very often cannot be separated from each other. The world of sail has given us more phrases and sayings than any other occupation. If it isn’t Shakespearian and it isn’t nautical there’s a good chance it’s Biblical. Both the Bible (Book of Proverbs) and Medieval Latin have played a considerable role in distributing proverbs across Europe, although almost every culture has examples of its own. Proverbs are also often borrowed from similar languages and cultures, and sometimes come down to the present through more than one language.

Every country and language has its own stock of proverbs, and proverbs in our language today reflect every age and time. Art is long and life is short is found originally as a saying of the Greek physician Hippocrates; The apple never falls far from the tree, which means that family characteristics will always assert themselves, is apparently of eastern origin. Sometimes the proverb as we have it today looks back to an earlier period; the idea that Bad money drives out good, recorded from the early 20th century, looks back to the anxieties of the 16th-century financier Sir Thomas Gresham about the debasement of the coinage.

The Bible has always been a major source (The leopard does not change his spots! ), but changes in the world around us create new proverbs to reflect current experience. The computing world has given us two of the most durable: Garbage in, garbage out and What you see is what you get. So as we can see the main sources of proverbs and sayings are folk, literary and Biblical. 3. The thematic classification of English proverbs and sayings English proverbs and sayings are numerous and various. It seems quite impossible to divide them all into thematic groups.

But we have analyzed the meanings of a great number of English proverbs and sayings and singled out the following topics which are most frequently discussed by pupils in the lesson: [pic] Examples are given in appendix 1. We think that teachers can widely use these proverbs and sayings in their lessons to encourage their pupils to share the ideas and express their opinions while working on this or that topic. 4. 1 The use of English proverbs and sayings in teaching English phonetics English proverbs and sayings can be used by teachers while teaching different aspects of English at school.

We think that they can also make the process of learning more interesting and exciting. Some English proverbs can be used to improve pupils’ phonetic skills and pronunciation. Teaching the beginners English proverbs and sayings can be used for practising different sounds, especially those which do not exist in the Russian language. Instead of separate words or phrases with sounds any teacher can use specially selected proverbs and sayings with the sound needed. This type of work can be included on different stages of the lesson and be a kind of relaxation for pupils. We propose the following proverbs and sayings for phonetic drills.

Examples are given in appendix 2. We think that proverbs and sayings can be used not only while teaching beginners, but also working with intermediate students, when they can improve both the pronunciation and stimulate the speaking activity. Even advanced pupils learn proverbs and sayings with pleasure while trying to make their pronunciation perfect. Usually pupils have no problems with learning proverbs and sayings and find them interesting and useful. 4. 2 The usage of English proverbs and sayings in teaching English grammar English proverbs and sayings can be widely used in teaching English grammar.

We analyzed lots of them and found out that the following grammar aspects can be taught with the help of proverbs and sayings: [pic] Examples are given in appendix 3. It is hardly possible to teach English grammar using only proverbs and sayings, but their use seems highly advisable for making the process of learning more fascinating and interesting. 4. 3 The usage of English proverbs and sayings in teaching English vocabulary English proverbs and sayings can also be widely used for teaching English vocabulary, because children learn a lot of new words from them.

Sometimes pupils memorize new words easier better because proverbs and sayings are logical and expressive statements. When pupils learn proverbs and sayings they train their memory, learn how to select necessary words and also develop the emotional expressiveness of their speech. The necessity to find the appropriate Russian equivalents for English proverbs and sayings helps pupils to develop their ability to choose lexical items adequately, stimulates pupils’ desire to use dictionaries and improves their translating skills.

For example we can use proverbs and sayings in teaching numbers, because they are easier to learn when the context is vivid. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. ????? ???? ?????? ? ?????, ??? ??? ? ??????. Two is company, three is none. ??. ??? ????, ??? ?????? ??????. If two man ride on a horse, one must ride behind. ???? ???? ???? ?? ??????, ???? ?????? ?????? ?????. Rain before seven, fine before eleven. ? 7 ????? ?????, ? ? 11 ????. ??. ???? ?????? ?? ??????. Custom is a second nature. ???????? – ?????? ??????. ?????? ????? ??????, ??? ?????? ???????. Two heads are better than one. ?? ?????? ????? ?????. ???. : ???? ?????? ??????, ? ??? ?????. ?? ??????, ? ??? ?????. To kill two birds with one stone. ????? ???? ???? ????? ??????. ???. : ????? ???? ?????? ????? ????????? (??????). A cat has nine lives. The following proverbs and sayings can be used in teaching the names of different animals: Every dog is a lion at home. ???? ????? ? ????? ?????? ?????. If you cut the woods, you’ll catch the wolf. ????? ?????? ????. There is life in the old dog yet. ???? ??? ????? ? ????????????. If you run after two hares, you will catch neither. ?? ????? ??????? ??????????, ?? ?????? ?? ????????.

Curses like chickens come home to roost. ??? ????????, ??? ? ???????????. Can the leopard change his spots? ????????? ?????? ????????. Like cow, like calf. ????? ???, ????? ? ??????. The early bird catches the worm. ??? ???? ??????, ???? ??? ????. If you sell the cow you will sell her milk too. ??? ????? – ????? ?????. A fly in the ointment. ????? ????? ? ????? ????. Love me, love my dog. ?????? ????????, ???? ? ??????? ??????. Curiosity killed the cat. ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ????????. A living dog is better than a dead lion. ????? ?????? ? ?????, ??? ??????? ? ????.

Pigs grunt about everything and nothing. ?? ????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????. Catch the bear before you sell his skin. ?? ?????? ???, ???? ?? ???????????. Learning English proverbs and sayings helps pupils to enrich their lexicon, train their memory and improve translating skills which are very important for anyone who wants to know English well. 4. 4 The usage of English proverbs and sayings in teaching speaking skills Proverbs and sayings can be used in different kinds of exercises for developing pupils’ speaking skills where they can serve as a stimulus. Here are some examples: make up a mini-dialogue using some proverb (work in pairs) “Two heads are better than one” PI: Tom, I can’t do my English today. Can you help me? P2: OK, it’s very not difficult. I’ll help you R1: Thank you very much. Two heads are better than one. “Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today” PI: Mum, I want to play football with Pete. P2: Have you cleaned up your room? PI: Not yet. I’ll do it tomorrow. P2: Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. * make up a collective story about this or that proverb (group work) “A friend in need is a friend indeed” PI: Yesterday I went to school.

P2: We had a test in Russian. P3: But I left my pencil-box at home. P4: I didn’t know what to do. P5: My friend Nick had two pens. P6: He gave me one pen. P7: A friend in need is a friend indeed. * make up a fairy tale with a proverb as a title or a moral (individual work) “An apple a day keeps a doctor away” Once upon a time there was a little girl. Her name was Mary. She was very ill and her mother called a doctor. The doctor looked at the girl and said: “You must eat an apple every day. ” Every day Mary ate one apple and soon she was fine. Her mother didn’t call the doctor any more.

An apple a day keeps a doctor away. “The right thing in the right place”. Mother bought tickets to the cinema. She gave them to me. I put the tickets on my table. When the time came to go to the cinema I didn’t remember where they were. I looked for the tickets. I looked and looked and looked and found them under the table. “The right thing in the right place”. Debates are also very popular with teachers when they want to improve their pupils’ speaking skills. For debates we usually need two different opinions which must be contradictory in their meaning for pupils to try and to prove one of the opinions.

English conflicting proverbs can be used to give a general idea for discussion. Examples are given in appendix 4. Proverbs and sayings can be used in different discussions when they can serve as a starting point of expressing pupils’ opinions. We think that conflicting proverbs are very useful for developing speaking skills because they will make any debate more interesting and dynamic. CONCLUSION This research is devoted to such a phenomenon as English proverbs and sayings. Proverbs and sayings are records of the development of civilization throughout its history.

A proverb is a simple and concrete saying popularly known and repeated, which expresses a truth, based on common sense or the practical experience of humanity. A saying is saying is a well-known phrase or statement that expresses something about life that most people believe is wise and true. The main difference between a proverb and a saying is that a proverb distinguishes from a saying by its instructive nature and maturity. Whereas a saying is usually not quite complete and has no conclusion. The sources of proverbs and sayings are many various. The main are folk, literary and Biblical.

All proverbs and sayings can be divided into various groups according to their meanings: proverbs and sayings about friendship, work, time, money and wealth, health, home and family, love and happiness, weather, learning and others. English proverbs and sayings can be used for teaching different aspects of the language: pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, speaking skills on all the levels. Our research is aimed to help teachers in making their lessons more interesting and informative. Having analyzed a great number of English proverbs and sayings we created a sort of collection where they are presented according to their themes.

We also grouped them together by grammar aspects. We are sure that English proverbs and sayings can be widely used in teaching different aspects of the language. We hope this collection will serve as a help list for teachers who want to make the process of English studying more interesting and effective for their pupils. REFERENCES 1. ???? ?. ?. ????????? ???????? ??????. ??????? ?. ???? ? ???? ?????. ?. , ??????? ?????, 1993. – 3 ?. 2. ???????? ?. ?. ?????????? ? ??????? ????????? ? ????????? ? ???????????? /?. ?. ????????; ?????. ?. ?. ???????. 2. ???. – ??????: ???????????,1995. – 348 ?. 3. ?????????? ?. ?. ?????? ????????? ? ????????? ? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ?????. ?. , ???????? ?????, 1992. – 222 ?. 4. ??????? ?. ?. ?????? ?. ?. ??????-?????????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????????. ??? ???? ?????-?????????, 1996. – 353 ?. 5. ???????? ?. ?. ????????? ? ??????????. // ??????????? ????? ? ?????, 1993. – ? 2. – ?. 51-52. 6. ????? ?. ?. ?????? ? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?? ????? ??????????? ????? ? IX ??????. // ??????????? ????? ? ?????, 2000. – ? 1. – ?. 40 – 42. 7. ??????????? ?. ?. ????????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ?? ????? ????????? ????? // ??????????? ????? ? ?????, 2001 – ? 2. – ?. 50-52. 8. http://www. ky-net-eye. com/rus/dictionary/english/for-russian-speaking/proverbs 9. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Proverb 10. http://www. classes. ru/proverbs-and-sayings. htm 11. http://eng. 1september. ru/view_article. php? ID=200801319 Appendix 1 Thematic classification of English proverbs and saying 1). English proverbs and saying about friendship: A friend in need is a friend indeed. ???? ? ???? ???? ????????? ????. ??. ?????? ????????? ? ????. ???? ? ???? ???????, ????? ? ????. ???? ????????? ? ?????????. A friend is never known till needed. ????? ?? ???????, ???? ?? ??????????? ??? ??????. ??. ???????????? ???? ?????????. ?? ???? ????? ?? ???????. A friend in court is better than a penny in purse. ?? ???? ??? ??????, ? ???? ??? ??????. A friend who shares is a friend who cares. ??? ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ?? ????. A broken friendship may be soldered, but will never be sound. ?????????? ?????? ????? ???????(??????), ?? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ???????. ?? . ?????????? ???? ?????????. Friend’s frown is better than a foe’s smile. ????? ?????? ???? ?????, ??? ?????? ?????. ??. ????? ??????? ?????? ?????, ??? ????? ?????. ?????? ???????????, ? ???? ??????. A hedge between keeps friendship green. ????? ????? ???????? ????????, ?? ? ?????? ??????. ????: ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ??????. A joke never gains an enemy but often loses a friend. ?????? ????? ?? ?????????, ? ????? ?????? ??????????. ??. ????, ?? ?????????, ? ?? ? ???? ??????? ?????. ????? ????, ?? ????? ?? ????. ????, ?? ???????????. Better an open enemy than a false friend. ????? ????? ?????? ?????, ??? ??????????? ?????. (??. ?? ?? ?????? ??????, ??? ????, ? ??, ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????. ) A friend to all is a friend to none. ???, ??? ???? ????, ?? ???????? ?????? ??????. ??. ???? ???? — ?????? ?? ????. ????????? ?????, ?? ????? ???. ? ????? ??????, ?? ??? ??????.

Even reckoning makes long friends. ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????. ??. ???? ?????? ?? ??????. ???? ?????? ?? ??????. ???? ???? — ?????? ??????. ???? ???? — ?????? ?????. Friends are thieves of time. ?????? — ???? ?????? ???????. They are hand and glove. ??? ??????????, ?????? ???? ? ????????. ??. ?? ??? ???? ?????? ??????????. ?? ????? ?? ?????????. Who keeps company with the wolf, will learn to howl. ??? ??????? ? ???????, ???????? ????. ??. ? ??? ??????????, ?? ???? ? ??????????. ? ??? ????-???? ??????, ?? ???? ? ????????. Old friends and old wine are best. ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ????. ?. ???? ??????, ???? ?????, ? ???? — ????? ??????. 2). English proverbs and saying about work: Business before pleasure. ??????? ????, ????? ???????????. ??. ???? ?????, ?????? ???. ?????? ????, ????? ?????. Haste makes waste. ????????? — ????? ????? ?????????. ??. ?????? ??????, ? ??????? ??????. ????????? — ????? ?????????. A bad workman quarrels with his tools. ?????? ???????? ? ????????????? ?? ? ????. ??. ? ??????? ??????? ? ???? ??????. ?????? ???? — ??? ???. ???? ??????? ??????. The work shows the workman. ??. ?? ?????? ? ??????? ?????. After dinner comes the reckoning. ????? ????? ?????????? ???????. ?. ?????? ????????, ???? ? ??????? ??????. Ill-gotten gains never prosper. ???????? ??????? ????? ?? ????. ??. ????? ????? ????? ?? ????. ????? ??????? ????? ?? ????: ??? ??????, ??? ? ?????. In for a penny, in for a pound. ??????? ?? ?????, ????? ??????? ? ?? ????. ?. ?. ???? ?????? ?? ???? ? ???????? ?? ???? ?????, ?? ????????? ? ????, ???? ???????????. ) ??. ??????? ????, ??? ?? ????? ?????. ?????? ?? ???, ?? ??????, ??? ?? ???. No pains, no gains. ??? ?????? ??? ? ?????????. ??. ??? ????? ??? ????? (?????). ??? ????? ?? ???????? ? ????? ?? ?????. To work with the left hand. ???????? ????? ?????. ??. ??????? ?????? ??????. ?????????? ? ???? ???????. With time patience the leaf of the mulberry becomes satin. ?? ???????? ? ??? ???????? ? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????. ??. ???????? ? ???? ??? ????????. All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. ???????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????. ??. ???? ???? ?????? — ???? ? ????????????. ????? ???? ? ?????????, ????????? ??? ? ????????. ???? ?????? ??? ?????? – ?? ??? ???????, ?????. Many hands make light work. ????? ??? ????? ?????? ????????. ??. ?????? ??????, ?? ????? ??????. ?????? — ?? ??????, ? ????? — ???? ?????. A busy as a bee. ?????? (????????????), ??? ?????. Live and learn. ???? ? ?????. ??. ??? ???? – ??? ?????. 3). English proverbs and saying about time: Lost time is never found again. ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????. ?? ??????? ?? ??????????. ????? ?? ????????. May hay while the sun shines. ???? ????, ???? ?????? ??????. ??. ??? ??????, ???? ??????. ???? ????, ???? ????. Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. ??????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??, ??? ?????? ??????? ???????. ??. ??????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????????. ?? ???????? ?? ?????? ????, ? ???????? ?????. “??????, ??????, ?? ???????”, -??? ?????? ???????.

Procrastination is the thief of time. ???????????? – ??? ???????. ??????????? — ????? ??????. ??. ????????? ???? ?? ????????. ? ?????? ??? ?????. Take time by the forelock. ?????? ????? ?? ??? (?. ?. ?? ??????? ???????? ??????). The more haste, the les speed. ??? ?????? ??????, ??? ?????? ????????. ??. ???? ????? ?????? ??????. ????????? ????? ?????????. With time patience the leaf of the mulberry becomes satin. ?? ???????? ? ??? ???????? ? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????. ??. ???????? ? ???? ??? ????????. Time flies. ????? ?????. Time is money. ????? – ??????. Time is the great healer. ?????-??????? ??????. ??. ?????-?????? ??????. ). English proverbs and saying about money and wealth: A light purse is a heavy curse. ?????? ??????? — ??????? ?????????. ??. ???? ???? ???, ????? ????? ???. A heavy purse makes a light heart. ?? ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????. ??. ???? ??? ????????, ??? ????? ? ????????. A light purse makes a heavy heart. ????? ??????? ????? — ?? ???? ??????. ??. ????? ?? ?????, ??? ? ? ????? ?????. He that has no money needs no purse. ? ???? ??? ?????, ???? ? ??????? ?? ?????. A penny saved is a penny gained. ????? ??????????? – ??? ????? ??? ????? ????????????. ??. ?????????, ??? ???????. ????????????? ?????? — ????????????. ??? ??????????? ???? ???? ????????????. Good health is above wealth. ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????????. ??. ???????? ?????? ?????. ???????? ????? ??????. ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????. Money makes the mare go. ?????? (?) ?????? ?????????? ????. Much will have more. ????? ????? ????? ??????. ??. ?????? ???? ? ???????. Strike while the iron is hot. ??. ??? ??????, ???? ??????. Take care of the pence and the pounds will take care of themselves. ?????????? ? ??????, ? ????? ???? ? ???? ???????????. ??. ??????? ????? ???????. ???? ? ????? — ??? ? ??????? ???????. Add pence to pence, for wealth comes hence. ??. ?????? ????? ???????. ???? ? ????? — ??? ? ??????? ???????. A fool and his money are soon parted. ????? ????? ?????????? ? ????????. ?? . ? ?????? ? ?????? ????. To come off with a whole skin. ????? ? ????? ??????. ??. ?????? ????. What’s done cannot be undone. ??? ???????, ?? ?? ????????. ??. ?????????? ?? ????????. A bad penny always comes back. ????????? ?????? ?????? ????????????. Where there’s much there’s brass. ??? ?????, ??? ? ??????. Money begets money. ??. ?????? ?????? ????????. ?????? ?? ?????? ????????. ?????? ? ??????? ????. Money has no smell. ?????? ?? ??????. Money is a good servant but a bad master. ????? — ??????? ?????, ?? ?????? ??????. ?????: ??????? ?????? ????????????? ????????, ? ?? ?????? ?????????. ??. ????? ??????? — ?????? ???????, ? ?????? — ?????. Money often unmakes the men who make it. ?????? ????? ????? ???, ??? ?? ????????. Money to spare likes (needs) good care. ??. ?????? ???? ?????. Money spent on the brain is never spent in vain. ??????, ??????????? ?? ???????????, ??????? ????? ?? ?????????. 5). English proverbs and saying about health: After dinner sit a while, after supper walk a mile. ????? ????? ?????? (?????) ???????, ????? ????? ? ???? ????????. Agues come on horseback, but go away on foot. ?????? ? ??? ???????? ??????, ? ?? ??? ?????? ??????. ??. ??????? ?????? ??????, ? ??????? ???????????. ???? ????? ????????, ?? ?? ????? ????????. An apple a day keeps a doctor away. ??. ??? ?? ???? ?????. Too much knowledge makes the head bald. ?? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ??????. ??. ????? ?????? ????? – ????? ???????????. Wealth is nothing without health. ????????? – ????? ??? ????????. ??. ?? ??? ??????? ? ??????? ???????. ???????? ?????? ?????. ???????? — ?????? ?????????. ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????. Health is not valued till sickness comes. ???????? ?? ???????, ???? ?? ???????? ???????. ??. ?? ???????? ?? ?????, ??? ????? ?? ??????. What can’t be cured, must be endured. ???? ?????? ????????, ?? ????? ???????. ?????: ???????? ???????? ? ???, ???? ?????? ?????????.. An ill wound is cured, not an ill name. ??????? ???? ????????, ? ???????? ????? — ???. Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise. ??. ??? ???? ??????? ? ???? ??????, ????????, ????????? ? ?? ???????. Good health is above wealth. ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????????. ??. ???????? ?????? ?????. ???????? ????? ??????. ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????. ? sound mind in a sound body. ? ???????? ???? ???????? ???. 6).

English proverbs and saying about home and family: East or West, home is best. ?????? ??, ????? ??, ? ???? ?????. ??. ? ?????? ??????, ? ???? ?????. There is ?? place like home. ??. ? ?????? ??????, ? ???? ?????. ???? ?? ??? ?????, ? ???? ????. Every dog is a lion at home. ???? ?????? ??? ????????? ???? ?????. ??. ???? ????? ? ????? ?????? ?????. ? ????? ????? ???? ??? ???????. The furthest way about is the nearest way home. ????? ??????? ???????? ?????? — ????????? ???? ?????. ??. ???? ?????- ?????? ??????. Like master, like man. ????? ??????, ????? ? ????????. ??. ????? ???, ????? ? ??????. Like father, like son. ????? ????, ????? ? ?????. ?. ????? ??????, ?????? ? ?????. ????? ??????, ????? ? ???. ?????? ??????, ????? ? ????. ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????. Men make houses, wom?n make homes. ??????? ?????? ????, ? ??????? ??????? ???. A good wife makes a good husband. ? ??????? ???? ? ??? ?????. ??. ?????? ????? ? ??? ??????. ? ??????? ???? ? ?????? ??? ????? ????????. A good Jack makes a good Jill. ? ???????? ????? ? ???? ??????. ??. ? ???????? ???? ? ???? ??????. If each would sweep before his own door, we should have a clean city. ???? ?????? ???????? ? ????? ?????, ????? ????? ??????. It is a sad house where the hen crows louder than the cock. ???? ??? ???, ? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????. Charity begins at home. ?????????? (???????????????????) ?????????? ? ???? ????. ??. ???? ??????? ????? ? ????. Curses like chickens come home to roost. ?????????, ??????? ????????, ???????????? ?? ???? ??????. ??. ?? ??? ??????? ???, ??? ? ??? ????????. ????????? ????? ??????? ??????. My house is my castle. ??? ??? — ??? ????????. (????? ?? ????? ????? ??????????? ? ??? ???????? ?????). ??. ? ????? ???? ??? ????, ??? ? ??????. Burn not your house to rid it of the mouse. He ?????? ??????, ????, ????? ?????????? ?? ?????. ??. ???????? ?? ????, ?? ? ???? ? ????.

A house divided against itself cannot stand. ??. ?????? ??????? ??????. ?????? ?? ??????????, ? ?? ????? ???? ????? ???????????. Wash your dirty linen at home. ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ????. ??. ?? ?????? ???? ?? ????. 7). English proverbs and saying about love and happiness: Absence makes the heart grow fonder. ??. ???? ??????, ?????? ??????. All is fair in love and war. ??? ????????? (??????, ???????) ? ????? ? ?? ?????. He that has no children knows not what love is. ???, ? ???? ??? ?????, ?? ?????, ??? ????? ??????. Love is neither bought nor sold. ??. ?????? ?? ???????? – ?? ????????? ? ??????. Love in a cottage. ????? ? ??????. ??. ? ????? ??? ? ? ??????. Love me, love my dog. ??. ?????? ????, ???? ? ?????? ???. ??? ????? ???, ??? ? ??????? ??? ????????. Love cannot be forced. ????? ?????? ?? ?????????. ???. : ???????? ??? ?? ??????. ?????? ?? ?????????. Love is blind, as well as hatred. ??????, ??? ? ?????????, ?????. ??. ?????? ?????. ?????? ?? ??? ?? ?????. ?????? ???, ???????? ? ?????. Love will creep where it may not go. ???, ??? ??? ??????? ????, ?????? ??????? ??????????. ?????: ??? ????? ??? ???????. ??. ?? ?????? ?????? ???. Salt water and absence wash away love. ?????? ????????? ?? ????? ??????? ????????. ??. ???? ????? — ?? ?????? ???. Take us as you find us. ???????? ??? (??????), ?????? ???????? ??? (?. ?. ?? ????? ????????????? ? ????????????). ??. ???????? ??? ???????????, ? ?????????? ?????? ???????. Love lives in cottages as well as in courts. ??. ? ????? ??? ? ? ??????. ?? ? ??????? ???????. ?? ? ?????????? ???? – ? ?????????. ?? be up to the ears in love. ??. ???? ?????????? ?? ???. Unlucky at cards, lucky in love. ??. ?? ????? ? ??????, ??????? ? ?????. True love never grows old. C?. ?????? ?????? ?? ???????. He is happy that thinks himself so. ???????? ???, ??? ???????, ??? ?? ????????. Happiness takes no account of time. ?? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????????. ??. ?????????? ????? ?? ?????????. Happy is he that is happy in his children. ???????? ???, ??? ???????? ?????? ?????? (?. ?. ? ???? ???? ???????). ??. ?? ??? ? ????, ???? ???? ???? ? ???. Beauty lies in lover’s eyes. ??????? – ? ?????? ????????. ???. : ?? ???????? ???????, ? ???????. ?? ??-?????? ???, ? ??-???? ?????. 8). English proverbs and saying about weather: Rain before seven, fine before eleven (rain before seven, clear by eleven). ???? ?????? ?? ??????. It never rains but it pours. ?????? ????, ????????? ??????. (???? ?? ???????? ????) If there were no clouds, we should not enjoy the sun. ?? ???? ??? ?????. The wind can’t be caught in a net. ???? ? ?????? ??????. Any port in a storm. ? ????? ??? ???????? ??????. Hoist your sail when the wind is fair. ??? ?????? ???? ??????. Words are but wind. ????? – ??? ?????. Vows made in storms are forgotten in calms. ??????, ?????? ? ????????? ??????, ?????????? ? ?????. Oaks may fall when reeds withstand the storm. ???, ?? ????. A quiet conscience sleeps in thunder. ? ?????? ???????? ? ? ????? ?????? ?????. Save it for a rainy day. ???????? ?? ?????? ????. After a storm comes the calm. ????? ????? – ?????, ????? ???? – ???????. ????? – ??? ?????: ???????, ?? ? ????????. ???????? ???? – ??????????? ?????. After rain comes fair weather. ?? ??? ????????, ????? ? ??????? ????????. The morning sun never lasts a day. ????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ??????. ???. : ????? ?? ????? ??? ????? It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. ???? ??? ?????, ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ????????. ???. : ??? ???? ??? ?????. ???? ??? ????? ?? ?????? Sow the wind and reap the whirlwind. ??? ?????? ?????, ?????? ????. When it rains pottage you must hold up your dish. ????? ? ???? ?????? ????????, ?????????? ???? ???????. Small rain lays great dust. ????????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????????. ???. : ???, ?? ????. ?? ????????, ?? ????? A foul morning may turn into a fair day. ????????? ???? – ??????????? ?????. While it is fine weather, mend your sail. ?????? ????? ????, ? ?????? ?????; ????? ??? ????????????. 9). English proverbs and saying about learning: Live and learn. ???? ? ?????. ???. : ??? ???? – ??? ?????. Soon learnt, soon forgotten. ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????. Don’t teach the dog to bark. ??????? ????? – ?????? ???????. Learn wisdom by the follies of others. ????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????. Learn to creep before you leap. ?????? ??? ???????, ??????? ???????. ?????: ??? ??????????? ??????????. ???. ?? ??? ?????. Learn to walk before you run. ?????? ?? ?? ????, ????? ?????. Like teacher, like pupil. ????? ???????, ????? ? ??????. Better unborn than untaught. ????? ?? ????????, ??? ?????? ????. Better untaught than ill-taught. ????? ???? ???????????, ??? ????? ?????????. ???. : ??????????? ???? ?????????. ?????????? ???? ????????. Learning is the eye of the mind. ?????? – ????, ? ???????? – ????. Learning makes wise; ignorance otherwise. ?????? – ????, ? ???????? – ????. APPENDIX 2 English proverbs and sayings in teaching pronunciation [w] sound: Where there is a will there is a way. ??? ???????, ??? ? ??????.

Waste not, want not. ??? ??????? ?? ????? ????, ???? ?? ???????? ?????. When wine is in wit is out. ???? ? ??????? ?? ?????: ????? ????? – ?? ??????. What we do willingly is easy. ???? ?? ????? – ????????? ????? ??????. When the cat is away, the mice will play. ??? ???? ????? ????????. No sweet without sweat. ??? ????? ?? ???????? ? ????? ?? ?????. Time works wonders. ????? ?????? ??????. [m] sound: So many men, so many minds. ??????? ????? – ??????? ????. To make a mountain out of a molehill. ?????? ?? ???? ?????. One man’s meat is another man’s poison. ??? ??????? ??????, ?? ??????? ??????. One man, no man. ??? ? ???? ?? ????. [h] sound: One cannot run with the hare, and hunt with the hounds. Handsome is that handsome does. ?????? ???, ??? ??????? ?????????. Harm watch, harm catch. ?? ????? ??????? – ????? ???????. [b] sound: Bargain is a bargain. ?????? ?????? ?????. Business before pleasure. ???? ?????, ?????? ???. ?????? ????, ????? ?????. Beggar can never be bankrupt. ????? ???? ?? ???????. [p] sound: Practice makes perfect. ????? ??????? ??????. Plenty is no plague. ???? ?????? ?? ?????????. To buy a pig in a poke. ?????? ???? ? ?????. Praise is not pudding. ??????? ?? ??? ?? ????????. sound [t]

Time and tide wait for no man. ????? ?????? ?? ????. To tell tales out of school. ???????? ??? ?? ????. sounds [t] ? [r]: Don’t trouble trouble until trouble troubles you. ?? ???? ????, ???? ??? ????. Tree is known by its fruit. ?? ?????? ??????, ?? ??? ?????. sounds [t] ? [? :]: Better untaught than ill-taught. ??????????? ???? ?????????. Better unborn than untaught. ????? ?? ????????, ??? ?????? ????. [d] sound: Dogs don’t eat dogs. ????? ?????? ???? ?? ???????. Deeds, ?? words. (?????) ????, ? ?? ?????. Dog eats dog. ??????? ???????? ????. Dumb dogs are dangerous. ?? ????? ?????? ?????????, ? ????? ??????????.

Desperate diseases must have desperate remedies. ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????????. Delays are dangerous. ???. : (?????) ????, ? ?? ?????. [k] sound: Care killed the cat. ?? ?????? ??????, ? ??????. Curiosity killed a cat. ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ????????. Quiet conscience sleeps in thunder. ? ?????? ???????? ? ? ????? ??????. Clear conscience laughs at false accusations. ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????. Close mouth catches no flies. ??? ??????, ??? ?? ??????. Counsel is no command. ????? ? ?????? ?? ????? ? ??????? ?? ????. Cut your coat according to your cloth. ?? ??????? ? ?????? ???????. ? ] sound: Health is above wealth. ???????? ?????? ?????. Wealth is nothing without health. ?? ??? ??????? ? ??????? ???????. Nothing venture, nothing have. ?????? ??????? – ?? ????? ?? ??????. Truth comes out of the mouths of babes and sucklings. ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????. [? ] sound: God helps those who help themselves. ?????????? ? ??? ???????. Neither here nor there. ?? ? ????, ?? ? ??????. [ei] sound: Haste makes waste. ????????? – ????? ?????????. No pains, no gains. ??? ?????? ??? ? ?????????. Who breaks, pays. ??? ??????? ????, ??? ? ???????????. To call a spade a spade. ???????? ???? ?????? ???????.

To lay by for a rainy day. ??????????? ?? ????????? ????. ???. : ???????? ??? ?????? ????. [i:] sound: Seeing is believing. ?? ???? ????? ?????, ? ???? ????? ????. To set the wolf to keep the sheep. ???? – ?? ??????, ??????- ?? ?????????. [i] sound: Sink or swim! ???? ???, ???? ??????. To kick against the pricks. ????? ?? ?????. [e] sound: The best defence is offence. ?????? ?????? – ?????????. Add pence to pence, for wealth comes hence. ???? ? ????? — ??? ? ???????. Better late than never. ????? ??????, ??? ???????. [? ] sound: To have rats in the attic. ????? ???? ?? ???????. ??. ???????? ?? ???????.

He that mischief hatches, mischief catches. ?? ??? ??????? ???, ??? ? ??? ????????. [u] sound: By hook or by crook. ?? ??????, ??? ????????. APPENDIX 3 English proverbs and sayings in teaching different grammar aspects Adjectives and adverbs. Degrees of comparison: 1. Better late than never. ????? ??????, ??? ???????. 2. Health is better than wealth. ???????? ?? ??????. 3. The chain is no stronger than the weakest link. ??? ?????, ??? ? ??????. 4. The shorter the parting the less tears. ?????? ??????? – ?????? ?????. 5. East or West home is best. ? ?????? ??????, ? ???? ?????. 6. The nearer the bone the sweeter the meat. ?????? ??????. 8. Cheapest is the dearest. ?????? ?? ????, ?????? ?? ?????. 9. Better a small fish than an empty dish. ?? ???????? ? ??? ????. 10. The further in the deeper. ?????? ? ??? – ?????? ????. 11. The more haste the worse speed. ????????? – ????? ?????????. 12. Blood is thicker than water. C??? ?????? ?? ?????? ????. 13. The best fish keep near the bottom. ???? ????, ??? ??????, ? ??????? – ??? ?????. 14. A man cannot die more than once. ?????? ?????? ?? ??????. 15. The first step is the hardest. ?????? ???? ?????? ?????. 16. Where the river is deepest it makes the least noise. ? ????? ????? ????? ???????. 17.

Grass is always greener on the other side of the fence. ? ????? ????? ?????? ?????. 18. Another man’s bun looks much more fun. ? ????? ????? ?????? ?????. 19. The more you study, the more you know, the more you know, the more you forget. ??? ???? – ??? ?????. 20. Better never begin than never make an end. ?????? ?? ???, ?? ??????, ??? ?? ???. 21. Every bird thinks his own nest best. ???? ????? ???? ?????? ??????. 22. A man can do no more than he can. ???? ?????? ?? ????????. 23. Things couldn’t be worse. ???? ??? ???? ????. 24. He works best who knows his trade. ???? ??????? ??????. 25. A living dog is better than a dead lion. ???? ?????? ? ?????, ??? ??????? ? ????. 26. The least said, the soonest mended. ? ?????? ??? ???????, ? ? ????? ??????????. ?????? ????????, ?????? ?????????. 27. The longest day has an end. ???? ???? ??????, ???? ????? ? ?????. 28. Stolen pleasures are sweetest. ????????? ???? ??????, ? ??????? ?????. Imperatives: 1. Don’t cross the bridges before you come to them. ??????? ?? ?????????. 2. Drive the nail that will go. ?????? ??????, ??????? ?????????. 3. Never say die. ????????, ?????, ? ??? ???????. 4. Do as you would be done by. ???? ???? ?? ??????, ???? ??????? ?? ?????. 5. Never cackle till your egg is laid. ? ?????? ???, ???? ?? ????????????. 6. Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. ??????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??, ??? ?????? ??????? ???????. 7. Don’t teach the dog to bark. ?? ??? ??????? ????, ???? ????? ???? ?????. 8. Wash your dirty linen at home. ?? ?????? ???? ?? ????. Modal verbs: 1. Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. ??????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??, ??? ?????? ??????? ???????. 2. What is done cannot be undone. ?????????? ?? ????????. 3. You can’t eat your cake and have it. ???? ????? ??? ???? ?? ?????. 4. You can take a horse to the water but you cannot make him drink. ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????, ?? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????. 5. You cannot teach old dogs new tricks. ??????? ?????, ??? ???????? ??????. 6. A willing horse shouldn’t be spurred. ?? ?????????? ???? ? ????? ?? ????. Articles: 1. An apple a day keeps a doctor away. ??? ?? ???? ?????. 2. A man can die but once. ???? ??????? ?? ??????, ? ????? ?? ????????. 3. A friend in need is a friend indeed. ?????? ????????? ? ????. 4. The devil is not so black as he is painted. ?? ??? ??????? ????, ??? ??? ??????. 5. A wise man never wants a weapon. ??? ?????? ??????, ??? ????? ?????????. 6. A drink is shorter than a tale. ?? ????? ?? ?????? ??????. Verbal. Participle I 1. Let sleeping dogs lie. ?? ????? ????, ???? ???? ????. 2. A drowning man catches at a straw. ????????? ? ?? ????????? ????????? 3. The tongue ever turns to the aching tooth. ? ???? ??? ?????, ??? ? ??? ? ???????. 4. The pot calling kettle black. ??? ?? ?????? ??????, ? ???? ?? ?????????. 5. A rolling stone gathers no moss. ???? ?? ????? ?? ???????, ??? ????? ?? ???????. 6. No living man all things can. ?? ??? ???????, ?? ?? ??? ???????. 7. Land flowing with milk and honey. ???????? ???? – ????????? ??????. 8. To cry stinking fish. ???????? ??? ?? ????. 9.

Burning desire is worse than fire. ????? ???? ??????. 10. All lay loads on the willing horse. ???? ?? ???, ? ????? ????????. Verbal. Participle II 1. A watched pot is long in boiling. ????? ?? ???????? – ??? ????. 2. Better one-eyed than stone-blind. ?? ???? ??? ???????? ???????. 3. Varnished tale can’t be round. ?? ????? ????? ?? ????????. 4. Well begun is half done. ???? ???? ??????. 5. Once bitten, twice shy. ????????? ?? ??????, ??????? ???? ?? ????. 6. A fault confessed is half redressed. ???????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????. 7. ? thing well done is twice done. ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????. 8. Threatened folk live long. ? ?????? ???? ??????? ????. 9. Packed like sardines. ??? ??????? ? ?????. 10. ? burnt child dreads the fire. ??????? ?????? ????? ??????. Verbal. Gerund 1. Life is not all clear sailing in calm waters. ????? ??????? – ?? ???? ???????. 2. Seeing is believing. ????? ???? ??? ???????, ??? ??? ??? ????????. 3. Between promising and performing, a man may marry his daughter. ?????????? ??? ???? ????. 4. It’s no use crying for the Moon. ?? ??? ? ???? ???. 5. There is no harm in trying. ??????? ?? ????? (? ????? ?? ????). 6. One cannot make an omelet without breaking eggs. ??? ????? – ????? ?????. 7.

Learning is the eye of mind. ?????? ????, ? ???????? ???? 8. ? clean hand wants no washing. ???????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????????????. 9. A watched pot is long in boiling. ????? ?? ???????? – ??? ????. 10. There is no use sticking your head in ? lion’s mouth. ?????? ????? ?? ??????????. Conditionals 1. If he finds ? man idle, he’ll set him to work. ???? ?? ???, ? ????? ????????. 2. If I never see you again, it’ll be too soon. ???? ? ???? – ?????? ?????. 3. If you agree to carry the calf, they’ll make you to carry the cow. ??? ??? ?????, ?? ? ??? ???? ???????. 4. If my aunt had been a man, she’d have been my uncle. ??? ?? ?? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?????, ??? ?? ?? ???, ? ????-??????. 5. If ifs and ans were pots and pans, there’d be no trade for tinkers. ???? ?? ?? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?????, ??? ?? ?? ???, ? ????-??????. 6. If you dance, you must pay the fiddle. ?????? ????????, ???? ? ??????? ??????. 7. If youth but knew, if age but could. ???? ?? ????????? ?????, ???? ?? ???????? ?????. 8. If you run after two hares, you will catch neither. ?? ????? ??????? ??????????, ?? ?????? ?? ????????. 9. If you agree to carry the calf, they’ll make you carry the cow. ??? ???? ?? ????? – ? ??? ???? ???????. 10. If you laugh before breakfast you’ll cry before supper. ??? ???????? ??????, ??? ?? ??????? ?? ?????. Passive Voice 1. Nothing is lost for asking. ?? ????? ????? ?? ?????. 2. Love is neither bought nor sold ?????? ?? ???????? – ?? ????????? ? ??????. 3. An oak is not felled with one stroke. ?????? ?? ????? ?????????. 4. Rome was not built in a day. ?????? ?? ????? ?????????. 5. He who pleased everyone died before he was born. ?? ???? ?? ???????. 6. Nothing is secret, that shall not be made manifest. ??? ?????? ???????, ??? ?? ????? ?? ?????. 7. Success is never blamed. ??????????? ?? ?????. 8. A fault confessed is half redressed. ???????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????. 9. thing well done is twice done. ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????. 10. If things were to be done twice all would be wise. ?????? ???? ???? ??????. Nouns. Plural 1. Too many cooks spoil the broth. ? ???? ????? ???? ??? ?????. 2. Hunger breaks stone walls. ????? ?? ?????. 3. Can the leopard change his spots? ????????? ?????? ????????. 4. A cat in gloves catches no mice. ??? ????? ?? ???????? ? ????? ?? ?????. 5. Life is not a bed of roses. ????? ??????? – ?? ???? ???????. 6. So many countries, so many customs. ??? ?????, ?? ?????, ??? ???????, ?? ??????. 7. Hell is full of good wishes. ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ?? ????????. . They don’t bring coals in Newcastle. ? ???? ?? ????? ????????? ?? ?????. 9. They don’t carry owls in Athens. ? ???? ?? ????? ????????? ?? ?????. 10. Hard words break no bones. ????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????. 11. Men may meet but mountains never. ???? ? ????? ?? ????????, ? ??????? ? ????????? ????????. 12. If you run after two hares, you will catch neither. ?? ????? ??????? ??????????, ?? ?????? ?? ????????. 13. Little strokes fell great oaks. ???? ?????? ?????. 14. A horse that will not carry a saddle must have no oats. ??? ?? ????????, ??? ?? ???. 15. There is small choice in rotten apples. ???? ?????? ?? ?????.

Nouns. Possessive Case 1. All the keys hang not at one man’s girdle. ??? ?? ??? ?????? ?????. 2. Another man’s soul is always dark. ????? ???? – ???????. 3. It’s only child’s play to what is on the way. ??? ??? ?????? ????????, ? ?????? ???????. 4. Pigeon’s milk. ?????? ??????. 5. To be tied to one’s wife’s apron-strings. ???? ??? ???????? ? ????. 6. The last drop that breaks camel’s back. ?????, ????????????? ???? ????????. 7. On? man’s meat is another man’s poison. ???????? ???, ? ?????? ???. 8. I’m not my brother’s keeper. ??? ???? ? ????. 9. Cat’s cheers are mice’s tears. ????? ???????, ? ????? ??????. 10.

The shoemaker’s wife is the worst shod. ???????? ??? ?????. 11. Another man’s bun looks much more fun. ? ????? ????? ?????? ?????. 12. Crows never pick crow’s eye. ????? ?????? ???? ?? ???????. 13. You cannot make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear. ????????? ?????? ????????. APPENDIX 4 Conflicting proverbs and sayings for debates Absence makes the heart grow fonder. – Out of sight, out of mind. Actions speak louder than words. – The pen is mightier than the sword. A silent man is a wise one. – A man without words is a man without thoughts. Look before you leap. – He who hesitates is lost. Many hands make light work. Too many cooks spoil the broth. Beware of Greeks bearing gifts. – Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth. Clothes make the man. – Don’t judge a book by its cover. Nothing ventured, nothing gained. – Better safe than sorry. The bigger, the better. – The best things come in small packages. What will be, will be. – Life is what you make it. Cross your bridges when you come to them. – Forewarned is forearmed. What’s good for the goose is good for the gander. – One man’s meat is another man’s poison. With age comes wisdom. – Out of the mouths of babes and sucklings come all wise sayings. The more, the merrier. Two’s company; three’s a crowd. It’s the squeaky wheel that gets the grease. – The nail that sticks out gets hammered. The best things in life are free. – You get what you pay for. It never rains, than it pours. – Lightning never strikes twice in the same place. Everything comes to him who waits. – He who hesitates is lost. Opposites attract. – Birds of a feather flock together. Never too old to learn. – You can’t teach an old dog new tricks. There is nothing permanent except change. – There is nothing new under the sun. Variety is the spice of life. – Don’t change horses in the middle of a stream.

Never do evil that good may come of it. – The end justifies the means. Better to ask the way t

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Sarah
Danielle
Wilson
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