Examining the Consequences of School Bullying and Provocation

BULLYING A Research Paper Presented To Prof. Ma. Victoria R. Protacio City University of Pasay (CUP) In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements For English II Submitted by: Ailyn Catolico BPG 1-1 March 4, 2013 Table of Contents Pages I. Acknowledgment 1 II. Introduction 2 III. Body A. The Problem and its Background 4 * Statement of the Problem/Objectives 4 * How does it affect the teaching of the teachers in the future 6 * Why is it the topic important 6 * Implication for Future Teaching 7 * What led them to this research 7

B. Compilation of Philippine Laws on Discipline and Punishment of Children 9 * The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines 9 * Rights of the Accused 9 * Court Order for Disciplinary Measures 9 C. Methodology 10 D. Related Literature 11 * Local Literature 11 * Foreign Literature 12 IV. Conclusion 13 V. Definition of terms 15 VI. Reference/Bibliography Acknowledgement

The researcher’s wishes to express their deepest gratitude to the special people who have extended their assistance for the success of this study; The Almighty God, who is the source of life and strength of knowledge and wisdom. To the fellow classmates, for sharing their knowledge and idea in helping the researchers in the construction of the project and for their genuine apprehension, encouragement, patient and guidance and whose expertise and knowledge were generously shared. To the beloved parents and guardians for untiring love and support. The Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, this piece of work was heartily offered.

Introduction The aim of this research was to determine the bullying and effects of it in classroom. Although it is not always obvious, students are bullied as early as elementary school. Instances of bullying make take place in school, during after-school programs, on the school bus, and in neighborhoods. This research focuses on the occurrence of bullying in classroom. It also focuses on ways to help students cope with the incidents of bullying. The impact of bullying and victimization is assessed by taking into account the relative buffering effect of a positive relationship with one or both parents.

Internalizing symptoms such as withdrawn behaviors, somatic complaints, and anxiety and depression. Bullying others directly by hitting, threatening, or calling names is not a significant predictor the poor mental and somatic health of youngsters, whereas indirect bullying (spreading rumors or not talking to someone on purpose) does significantly predict anxiety and depression, as well as withdrawn behaviors. The negative impact of victimization and bullying is buffered by youngsters’ positive relationship with one or both parents.

Recommendations are provided with regard to possible intervention strategies underlying the importance of distinguishing between different forms of bullying and victimization and providing social support in each different case. Unfortunately, bullying is an unavoidable part of life for children, but what it is the best way to deal with bullying so that both the bully and the victim can grow from the experience and become better people? Before this question can be answered, it is important to explore every aspect involved with bullying.

Specifically, we need to look at everything that bullies do, the way it affects both the victim and the bully, and exactly how much bullying currently occurs in schools. Bullying is very frequent and since the beginning of time it has plagued schools all over the world. It is a major issue in today’s world and is well-worthy of discussion. Most of the time when people think of bullying going on in schools, one generic picture comes to mind; a big, scary boy coming along to a younger, punier child and saying, “Give me your lunch money dork! then the bully proceeds to turn the victim upside down to empty his pockets for lunch money. However, bullying is not always that simple, and there does not necessarily need to be physical violence involved in order for something to be considered bullying. The Problem and its Background Statement of the Problem/Objectives There are different types of bullies that are common in schools today; physical bullies, verbal bullies, and relational bullies. Physical bullies are just what they sound like, physical.

These types of bullies tend to hit, kick, punch, shove, or use any other type of physical exertion of energy towards other. Verbal bullies are the types of bullies that use harsh words such as name-calling, insults, racial comments, or comments about another student’s physical appearance in order to degrade their victim. Verbal bullying is the most commonly reported type of bullying. Finally, relational bullies will act by singling out their victim from their peer group. This is mostly done by the bully using verbal threats or spreading undesirable rumors about their victims.

While these types of bullying are not necessarily the stereotypical pictures that come to mind when thinking about bullies, they are all very serious and can possibly have some serious detrimental effects on both parties involved. This research was to investigate the impact of physical, verbal and social bullying in school, thereby improving the knowledge base and insight of counselors who work with victims of bullying. The study was feasible, as it was within the financial and practical means of the researcher. This quantitative study endeavored to answer the following research question: * What is the impact of bullying in the students? Is bullying in school a normal part of life? * Do the independent variables – perceptions of school climate variables and school membership (the school a student attends) – have a significant relationship with the students reporting being involved in bullying at all, whether as a bully or as a victim? The problem of bullying at school is a complex problem that emerges from social, physical, institutional and community contexts, as well as the individual characteristics of the students who are bullied and victimized (Swearer & Doll (2001)).

A useful framework for understanding bullying is Bronfenbrenner’s ecological system theory (1979; 1993). When the ecological perspective is applied to bullying, a bullying interaction occurs not only because of individual characteristics of the child who is bullying, but also because of actions of peers, teachers and school staff, and physical characteristics of the school environment. How students perceive all these factors will be referred to as school climate in thus study. Families, cultural factors, and even community factors also play a role in the occurrence of the bullying interaction.

The ecological system theory, as conceptualized by Bronfenbrenner, has been used to study complex behaviors of children and adolescents. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological system theory is a useful framework in this study for several reasons. This ecological system theory takes into account that the student is not merely acted upon by the environment. The student is both active and reactive. Strength of framing this study using Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory is that it takes into account not just the environment, but student’s perceptions of the environment.

This is important, because it accounts for why two students in similar environments may exhibit wildly different behaviors (Thomas, 1996). In summary, bullying is best conceptualized as intrinsic factors in the student interacting with the social environment, which then serves to reinforce bullying and/or victimization behaviors. Bullying is a serious problem that can dramatically affect the ability of students to progress academically and socially. A comprehensive intervention plan that involves all students, parents, and school staff is required to ensure that all students can learn in a safe and fear-free environment.

How does it affect the teaching of the teachers, and how will it affect the teaching of the teachers in the future? One of core beliefs as students is that students need a safe, comfortable environment in order for learning to occur. The researcher feels that if students are being bullied in school and in school-related situations, then their attention is not focused primarily on learning; it is divided between academics and concern about negative social situations that are associated with schools.

In order to create a safe environment where the students can thrive as learners, they have decided to inquire into a phenomenon that often precludes students from thriving – bullying. It is their hope and intention that by learning more about the phenomenon of school bullying, they can take measures to prevent bullying in schools. These preventative measures include fostering positive attitudes and empathy in schools to reduce the occurrence of bullying that the students face and teach those coping strategies with which they feel comfortable using when they are bullied.

Why is it the topic important? In the past, bullying was considered a part of growing up; now, psychologists are warning parents and teachers that bullying is a problem that could result in serious consequences for victims and bullies alike. One reason that bullying is a problem in schools is because people have not changed their thinking from that of the past – which bullying is simply a part of growing up, and kids need to learn to deal with it. They want you to believe that if cognitions about bullying were changed, the occurrence of bullying would decrease.

They would agree: “If students attend schools in which bullying behaviors are accepted by adults and peers, it is plausible that they will engage in more of these behaviors. ” The opposite would likewise be true – if students attend a school where bullying is not accepted, then it is possible that there will be fewer occurrence of bullying in that school over time. Implication for Future Teaching From this research, they want you to learned several things about the practice as students.

They want you have a good communication between home and school so that parents and teachers understand your beliefs as students and that they feel the schools should be a safe environment in which you can learn. This way, you will feel comfortable sharing your feelings with us and to your parents and teachers, and you will model giving compliments and have your practice giving compliments to your parents in order to help facilitate more frequent use of the compliment and proposal study. You can also try using other activities in the meetings to help the students understand the different aspects of the bullying problem.

You can use role play scenarios to give the students the opportunity to practice their responses to bullying situations and to help them understand how it feels to be “in the shoes” of everyone involved in a bullying situation. They also want you to realize that no matter what school levels we are, it will be important to address these issues as well as other issues such as general community-building and character education in order to guide the students to appropriate social behaviors. What led them to this research?

They have been interested in bullying since they heard it in news. They were originally interested in how teachers and school staff helped children to cope with and understand the effects of bullying in schools. In their research for this, they found that many teachers were using similar strategies for coping with bullying. Their interest narrowed down to bullying in schools. The more they earned about bullying, the more interested in it they became because bullying is so embedded in our society that many adults and children do not recognize its many forms.

Manifestations of bullying are overt as well as covert. The physical bullying and verbal harassment are considered overt forms of bullying, but bullying also includes covert behaviors such as spreading rumors and social exclusion. At the end of their secondary school, they submitted an honors thesis proposal indicating research topic for senior honors thesis for the High School. They continued to do more research and read books and articles about the topic of bullying. The literature suggests that bullying is a salient problem in the country, ven in elementary school, and it can have negative effects later in life. According to the article “Bullying: Facts for schools and parents,” “bullying is the most common form of violence in our society” (Cohn & Canter, 2003, p. 1). Although bullying has negative consequences for everyone involved in a bullying situation, Banks’ article “Bullying in schools” states that there is a strong correlation between bullying during school years and having criminal or legal problems in adulthood (1997).

As a people who were educated in the Philippines, they can attest to having different types of bullying experiences throughout school, and they believe that most people would admit to experiencing a bullying situation at some point in their life. Considering their position as a secondary high school for the entire year, they realized that not only did they need to think of ways to help children cope with bullying situations in their own lives; they needed to also consider ways to prevent it from occurring.

After some thinking, they decided that if they could find a way to foster empathy in schools, then the students would feel compassionate toward victims of bullying and come to their aid, as well as not want to bully someone because they can imagine what it must be like to “be in that person’s shoes”. Compilation of Philippine Laws on Discipline and Punishment of Children THE 1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILLIPINES The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines (Constitution) is the supreme written law in the country and it serves as the basic framework for any act or rule of any branch or agency of the government.

All laws must comply with its provisions, otherwise it will be declared as void. Hence, it is necessary to refer to the Constitution and examine how it views the development of children in the context of the family and educational institutions. Rights of the Accused The Bill of Rights (Article III, Constitution) enshrines the rights of any person, including children in conflict with the law, under investigation for the commission of an offense. Article III, Section 12 specifically prohibits the following: 2. No torture, force, violence, threat, intimidations, or any other means hich vitiate the free will shall be used against [any person under investigation for the commission of an offense]. Secret detention places, solitary, incommunicado, or other similar forms of detention are prohibited. Court Order for Disciplinary Measures As a means of assisting parents in imposing discipline on a child, Article 223 provides that parents or, in their absence or incapacity, the individual, entity or institution exercising parental authority, may file a petition before the proper court of the place where the child resides, for an order providing for disciplinary measures over the child.

The article also provides that the “child shall be entitled to the assistance of counsel, either of his choice or appointed by the court, and a summary hearing shall be conducted wherein the petitioner and the child shall be heard. ” The court is authorized to adopt such other measures as it may deem just and proper, including the “commitment of the child children’s homes duly accredited by the proper government agency. ” Related Literature Upon researching the bullying and how it has become a common issue in schools today, the following literature was found through the search.

To address the issue of bullying, the interventions and roles of school counselors need to be considered. In order for this to be done, a clear understanding of how prevalent bullying is, the intervention strategies used, and the roles that school counselors play in this terrifying act needs to be addressed. Local Literature In 2001, the United Nations General Assembly, upon the request of the Committee on the Rights of the Child, called for the conduct of an in-depth study on violence against children through a resolution.

The study seeks to provide an in-depth global picture of violence against children as well as propose clear recommendations for the improvement of legislation, policy, and programmed relating to the prevention of and responses to violence against children. Save the Children UK in the Philippines was greatly involved in the research initiatives of the Alliance on the physical and emotional punishment of children through its Research on the Physical and Emotional Punishment of Filipino Children, which was conducted in Cebu City in the Visayas and in Caloocan City in Metro Manila.

The research provides information on: (1) What children think about physical punishment; (2) The types of punishment inflicted on children; (3) The context of punishment (settings such as homes, schools, streets, institutions, and juvenile justice); (4) Who punishes children and why; (5) What adults think about physical punishment and discipline; and (6) Local means of non-violent conflict resolution, which can be used in programme interventions and advocacy (Save the Children UK, 2006).

According to the National Parent Teacher Association (2000) research has shown that effectively engaging parents and families in the education of their children has the potential to be far more transformational than any other type of educational reform. Foreign Literature In October 2004, according to Helen Phillips, San Diego, the age at which kids first fall victim to bullying could influence how strongly they are affected, suggests a new study. And, surprisingly, it is not the youngest kids who are hurt the most in the long term.

Bullying can have long-lasting effects, but particularly when it begins in adolescence, the researchers say. People subjected to either verbal or physical bullying are known to be at greater risk for developing depression, anxiety disorders or to behave violently. But not everyone reacts in this way. Children bullied for the first time before they hit puberty seem to get over it, but those are victimized for the first time late on in puberty seem to become more aggressive or are more likely to turn to drink as a means of coping. Much research has been devoted to the subject of parental involvement and how it affects the lives of children.

Major legislation such as the Goals 2000, the Educate American Act and the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Act (ESEA) have made parental involvement a national priority (Kyle, McIntyre, Miller, & Moore 2002). Methodology This research will address a problem that facing children of all ages; this serious issue is bullying. The problem of bullying in schools is an important issue that needs to be further addressed. The specific aspects of bullying that need to be further studied are what causes bullies to bully peers and how victims cope with the way they are being treated by classmates at school.

When teens bully, it is likely they are experiencing some sort of personal problem that needs treatment, and those who are victims develop problems that need to be treated. All students who are involved with bullying, regardless of whether they are bullies or victims, need interventions before more serious issues develop. The problems both victims and bullies face can affect society as a whole since they can lead to more violent acts, suicides, and an increase in substance abuse.

The more that is known about the issues associated with bullying, the more social workers can do to prevent it and develop better understandings of how to treat bullies and victims. This research will further explore causes of bullying behaviors and the coping mechanisms victims’ issue. The information gathered can potentially be useful in raising awareness on this topic and for creating new policies on bullying. Conclusion Based on the findings, the following conclusions are given concluded: Bullies react aggressively in response to provocation or perceived insults or slights.

It is unclear whether their acts of bullying give them pleasure or are just the most effective way they have learned to get what they want from other. Bullying negatively affects both the child being victimized and the child who is the bully. There are always short-term affects and if the bullying is severe enough there can also be long term effects. Children who are bullied can suffer from low self esteem and other emotional problems and children who do the bullying are much more likely to have problems with drugs and alcohol later in life.

The victims of bullies often loose self esteem, start having trouble in school, and withdraw from friends and activities. If it is not stopped and continues for long enough, children can suffer these problems permanently. Not being able to understand the harm they do to themselves, psychopathic bullies are particularly dangerous. Bullying should not be taken lightly as it can cause serious problems for all the children involved. Being bullied is a very stressful ordeal for children. Many bullying victims are reluctant to talk about their experiences making it even harder to help them.

Never tell the child just to ignore the bullying. They will feel as if you are just going to ignore it and they should not have bothered to tell in the first place. Make contact with bully’s parents. Often they are unaware of their child’s behavior and will want to help work with you to make positive changes. Do not allow your child to hang around empty playgrounds or stay late at school alone. Teach them to always use the buddy system. Sometimes children exhibit certain behaviors that irritate or provoke others.

If this is the case, help the child to find more suitable ways to interact with friends and peer groups. Bullying will forever plague schools all over the world and it is vital to know ways in which teachers and parents can work together in order to lessen the blow bullying has on society, and keep our children safe and happy. A higher quality of life for students where they can focus on their academics at school rather than on bullies will provide them with less stressful lives and prevent many of the problems, such as depression and suicide, which can oftentimes be linked to childhood violence.

Definition of Key Terms * Anxiety – a nervous feeling caused by fear that something bad is going to happen; worry. * Buffering – a person or thing that reduces a shock or protects somebody or something against difficulties. * Bully – a person who uses his or her strength or power to frighten or hurt weaker people. * Bullying – is a form of aggressive behavior manifested by the use of force or coercion to affect others, particularly when the behavior is habitual and involves an imbalance of power. * Depression – to make somebody sad and without enthusiasm or hope. Detrimental – harmful. * Feasible – that can be done; practical. * Impact – a strong effect or impression. * Institution – an organization established for social, educational, religious, etc. purposes. * Intervention – to become involved in a situation, especially so as to prevent something happening or to try to help somebody. * Recommendation – to suggest a course of action; to advise something. * School – educational institution for pupils up to 19 years of age. Reference/Bibliography Website/Internet * http://www. olweus. rg/public/authors. page * http://www. google. com. ph/url? sa=t&rct=j&q=research%20paper%20about%20bullying&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&sqi=2&ved=0CGwQFjAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Feportfolios. ithaca. edu%2Fcmoses1%2Fdocs%2Fbullying. doc&ei=bsM1UaT4K4iOiAfv6IHgAg&usg=AFQjCNEwrr4Ecj-700ei_BMFwMutkTIhcA&bvm=bv. 43148975,d. aGc * http://www. slideshare. net/victoriasantos9822924/bullying * http://www. ed. psu. edu/educ/pds/teacher-inquiry/2006/plackek. pdf * http://www. rb. se/eng/Programme/TheUNStudyonViolenceagainstChildren. htm