Geographical Discoveries

Great geographical discoveries – a popular term geographical discoveries made at the turn of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, in particular: circumnavigation Cape of Good Hope by Diaz (1488), the discovery of America by Columbus (1492), and then the conquest, trip [[Vasco da Gama | to India (1498) and the first trip around the world, Magellan (1519-1522). These events triggered a further voyages of discovery and contributed to a significant widening of the geographical horizon of Europeans. Expedition of Christopher Columbus

Rulers of Spain, they realized that they begin to lose the distance to Portugal, which definitely lead the quantity organized expeditions. But so far Spain was busy fighting with the Arabs, who defended her at the last stronghold – Grenada. When in 1492 the Saracens were expelled from the Iberian peninsula, Ferdinand and Isabella agreed to finance the expedition, which presented them with a description of the Genoese Christopher Columbus. The traveler asked the first king of Portugal. Presented a plan aimed at shipping on the west and in accordance with the map of Ptolemy, after crossing the Atlantic to reach Asia.

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However, not met with favor. With the same plan, asked the king of Spain. Under the agreement, written by Columbus from the royal couple: Columbus was appointed for life admiral, governor and viceroy of the newly discovered lands. 1 / 10 of income from the newly discovered land was to belong to Columbus, the rest of the royal treasury. In return, Columbus promised to cover 1 / 8 the cost of the expedition. The rest covered the royal couple. And the expedition of Christopher Columbus (1492-1493) The expedition set sail on August 3, 1492 from the port of Palos de la Frontera.

The first stage of the journey were previously discovered the Canary Islands, then Columbus sailed along the 28 parallel to the west. The crew, consisting of about 90 people after 3 weeks of shipping began to rebel, when it turned out that you can not see land. 29. 09. Columbus in his diary wrote that it was rebellion. 11. 10. Columbus erected ultimatum – if within 24 hours will not see the land has ordered outflow. Fortunately for Kolumba12 October after three months of the expedition, when the entire crew of the ship was already tired and actually threatened Columbus’s death, Juan

Rodriguez Bermejo saw the crow’s nest land. The expedition landed on the island probably Watling (called Guanahani by the Indians), a small island group of the Bahamas. In the natives pointed gold ornaments. Interviewed about their origin indicated the direction to the south. Judging from this that lies to the north of the mainland, Columbus chose a new course to the southwest. Indians called the island’s inhabitants. October 28 Columbus arrived in Cuba, then on December 6 found another island of Haiti / Hispaniola and the smaller islands, which he called Isabella and Fernandina in honor of the royal couple.

Then there was a crisis – in late January and February turned out that the admiral ship sank and the Santa Maria, Columbus ordered the return to their homeland. In March 1493, two ships returned to Palos. Second expedition of Christopher Columbus (1493 – 1494) September 25, 1493, the expedition set off another. This time the expedition better equipped, numbering more ships (about 15, the number of crew: about 1750). The expedition lasted 1. 5 years. This time, Columbus chose a more southern route, and thus reached land in the area of ?? the Lesser Antilles.

Subsequently discovered the island of Dominica, Marie – Galante, Guadeloupe, Antigua and Puerto Rico. Nov. 22 Columbus arrived in Haiti again, to see that the people left there, no one survived. How domyslono, all perished in the struggle with the natives. In the longer journey Columbus sailed along the southern coast of Cuba and discovered Jamaica. However, the absolute gggaaaTymczasem proceeding to Columbus alienated a large part of his crew. Discouraged many hardships and lack of legendary riches separated themselves from the trip and started searching on your own.

Others returned to Spain, choking many complaints on Columbus. Influenced by the enemies of Columbus postulated to take privileges granted to him earlier, and in his place appointed royal governor of the newly discovered lands. In this situation, Columbus on March 19 headed back to Spain, where he arrived June 11. At the court managed to clear himself of the charges against him, obtained a confirmation of earlier privileges and the promise of organizing the next, the third expedition. Third expedition of Christopher Columbus (1498 – 1500)

Another, already the third expedition took place in 1498 on her organization had to wait so much, because it failed to fully restore confidence in what it darzono. In fact, only during this expedition, Christopher Columbus saw the mainland. It was South America, but that’s when fate turned away from Columbus. Columbus autocratic favor of his people, in particular his son – Diego. She came to the undoubted frustration at the lack of major economic successes and difficulties expeditions in relations with the natives. Just as during the second expedition, news arrived of the problems to the crown.

Meanwhile, it was decided to act more decisively. In June 1500 sent to the west of Francis Bobadilla, which were endowed with wide powers of attorney. After reviewing the situation in Haiti, he ordered arrest of Columbus and his son, and shackled to send them to Spain. At the Columbus site again managed to clear themselves of charges and return to the graces of the royal pair. The result was a fourth and last expedition of Columbus to America. IV expedition of Christopher Columbus (1502 -1504) May 9, 1502 flotilla of four ships and 150 crew company Columbus went west again.

This time the situation was urgent. In the meantime, Vasco da Gama discovered the route to India around the African continent. Columbus urgently needed was a success proving that the road to the west is shorter, more comfortable and safer. Columbus’s intention was to find the transition to water, which eventually took him to lead India. He expected to go to the west of Cuba. There was headed in his expedition. Flowing in this direction reached the coasts of Honduras and the Mosquito Coast on the east coast of Nicaragua.

There, the natives learned about the “rich kingdoms” (Mayan civilization, and perhaps even the Inca Empire) and the “great sea” (Pacific Ocean), which lies further west, but despite strenuous attempts failed to find a water passage to the reservoir. Having lost two of the four ships, resigned to return to Cuba, then to Jamaica. There he was forced to settle the remaining ships aground. Materials originating in the damaged ships were used for the construction of fortified settlements. One of the companions of Columbus, Diego Mendez, the Indian boats set off for help survivors.

But it was only after months wandering managed to get to Haiti, where he brought help. In the meantime Columbus was seriously ill and in such condition were transported him to Spain, where he arrived November 25, 1504. Summary of accomplishments of Christopher Columbus Given what Columbus has to say that the end of his life was tragic. After returning from the expedition moved to fourth place Vailadolid seriously ill, and having almost the status of a beggar. He died on May 20, 1506 was actually not knowing that he discovered America.

He was convinced that came to Japan, to China, to India, and the mainland, which he saw during the third expedition he considered the biblical paradise. Meanwhile, the Portuguese and Spaniards, and realized that Columbus did not reach India, and discovered a new land. Another version of the last years of his life of Columbus presents a mysterious manuscript of Puri, according to which Columbus had died many years later and still take one-fifth trip to the West Indies. The authenticity of this source is given, however, questioned by most scholars Ferdinand Magellan (port. Fernao de Magalhaes, Spanish.

Fernando de Magallanes, born. In the spring of 1480, as amended. April 27, 1521) – Portuguese sailor in the service of the Spanish maritime explorer and adventurer. He called the Pacific Ocean (Pacific). September 20, 1519 set out from Portugal by the western, or by the Atlantic Ocean to the Spice Islands in the Malay Archipelago. The expedition, which sailed under his command as the first circumnavigated the Earth. He died on April 27 killed by the inhabitants of the island of Mactan in the Philippine Archipelago Christopher Columbus (born 25 August or 31 October 1451 in Genoa (Italy) – died.

May 20, 1506 in Valladolid, cat Cristofor Colom, owned by Cristoforo Colombo, Spanish. Cristobal Colon) – European sailor and navigator (probably Catalan by recent discoveries), captain of the expedition, which flowed on the three ships Santa Maria, Nina and Pinta under the flag of Castile in search of the western sea route to India, as the first in the history of geographical discoveries of modern beat tropical Atlantic Ocean and 12 October 1492 reached the West Indies (Antilles ) off the coast of America – the continent at that time unknown in Europe.

Was appointed as admiral and made the first governor of the Spanish colonies in Central America, the organizer and master of four transatlantic discovery expeditions from Spain to America. Diaz used the discovery of Vasco da Gama. In 1497 another expedition was launched. Da Gama sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and headed towards Asia. Docked in the port of Calicut in India. Returned to the country in 1499 along with a large cargo of gold and spices. The country welcomed him enthusiastically. Maritime route to India became a reality.

No wonder that the success of this expedition had a big impact naorganizowanie next. Henry the Navigator Portugal at least because of its location lent itself perfectly to the base for ocean expeditions. Despite the advantages of geographical location odegralaby probably not such a role in the great geographical discoveries, if not enthusiasm and dedication to Prince Henry (1394-1460) Henry called Sailor. After the conquest by the Portuguese in 1415 On the Moroccan coast Ceutry Henry was convinced that further expansion in Africa will bring great benefits.

Counting on profits from trading gold, slaves, ivory, and pepper. With his support along the western coast of Cape Sangres organized a sort of database connection with the research center, where he collected all the geographical and navigational data and worked on the construction of sailing ships. For seventy years the Portuguese sailing ships were moving farther and farther south along the African coast, reaching successive headlands: Nun, Bojador, Blanco and 1445 Green Cape.

During these expeditions the Portuguese discovered and colonized offshore islands and archipelagos – Madeira, the Canary Islands, Cape Verde. They assumed a fortified factories on the coast. And as it turned out that gold is less in Africa than they hoped, they took a more profitable procedere, the slave trade. EXPEDITIONS: WYPRARY PORTUGUESE: -Henry the Navigator – Azores, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, crossed the equator in 1471r. , -Bartholomew Diaz – 1488r . – Busz Cape (Cape of Good Hope), Vasco da Gamma– the road to India along the coast of Africa (1497-1498), SPANISH EXPEDITION: Christopher Columbus – the discovery of America (12. 10. 1942r), Hispaniola (Haiti), Cuba and others (1492), Lesser Antilles, the Coast of Central America and South America (1493-1503); -Amerigo Vespucci – realized that America is a new continent (from his name, name); -Ferdinand Magellan – (1519-1522) circumnavigation of the Earth (Magellan Strait, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Borneo) – died in 1521r. In the Philippines, an expedition Sebastian del Cano finished; – Francis Drake (English) – and the circumnavigation of South America (the world);

CIVILIZATIONS AND SOUTH CENTRAL AMERICA: Maya: V w. n. e. – The beginnings of civilization in the areas of Central America (Yucatan plw. ) with its capital in Majapan; Economy: -Wypaleniskowa (incandescent), -Grown: beans, wheat, -Craft, art, the pyramid; -Religion based on the sun-god cults, rites – human sacrifice; -Totalitarian power, absolute, hereditary; -The principal adviser to the ruler – the high priest; -Did not know the wheel or arc; -Calendar (365 days divided into 18 months); -Developed astronomy; -Know the time (to understand this concept) decimal system; Were aware of the layout of digits; The Aztecs: The thirteenth century – the beginnings of civilization in the areas of Mexico today, with its capital in Tenochtitlan; -Developed economy; -Grown: tomatoes, cotton, cocoa; -Money: cocoa beans or golden sand; -Tools more advanced than the Mayans; -Construction: the temples; -Ruler chosen from among the administrative units; -Bloody rituals, worship of the sun: 1489 – 250 thousand were killed. people as victims of ritual, such as skinned, pulling beating hearts; -Took over the Mayan calendar;

Incas: Fifteenth century origins of civilization in the areas of Peru; -Cult of the sun and moon; -A highly developed economy, -Machu Picchu, -Crafts (ornaments of gold); -Totalitarian state, absolute power; -The interests of the subordinated interests of the state; -Residents could not travel to other parts of the country; Courier-Mail (16 thousand. Km of roads) Knotted-letter; -Developed surgery and herbal medicine, hypnosis; 1519r. – Hispanic – Cortez Aztec civilization znieszczenie; XVI – the destruction of the Incas – Izarro;

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