Introduction of Management
Chapter 1 Introduction of management Management is a universal phenomenon. It is a very popular and widely used term. All organizations – business, political, cultural or social are involved in management because it is the management which helps and directs the various efforts towards a definite purpose. According to Harold Koontz, “Management is an art of getting things done through and with the people in formally organized groups. It is an art of creating an environment in which people can perform and individuals and can co-operate towards attainment of group goals”. According to F. W.
Taylor, “Management is an art of knowing what to do, when to do and see that it is done in the best and cheapest way”. Management is a purposive activity. It is something that directs group efforts towards the attainment of certain pre – determined goals. It is the process of working with and through others to effectively achieve the goals of the organization, by efficiently using limited resources in the changing world. Of course, these goals may vary from one enterprise to another. E. g. : For one enterprise it may be launching of new products by conducting market surveys and for other it may be profit maximization by minimizing cost.
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Management involves creating an internal environment: – It is the management which puts into use the various factors of production. Therefore, it is the responsibility of management to create such conditions which are conducive to maximum efforts so that people are able to perform their task efficiently and effectively. It includes ensuring availability of raw materials, determination of wages and salaries, formulation of rules & regulations etc. Therefore, we can say that good management includes both being effective and efficient. Being effective means doing the appropriate task i. , fitting the square pegs in square holes and round pegs in round holes. Being efficient means doing the task correctly, at least possible cost with minimum wastage of resources. Management can be defined in detail in following categories : 1. Management as a Process 2. Management as an Activity 3. Management as a Discipline 4. Management as a Group 5. Management as a Science 6. Management as an Art 7. Management as a Profession Management as science science is a systematic body of knowledge pertaining to a specific field of study that contains general facts which explains a phenomenon.
It establishes cause and effect relationship between two or more variables and underlines the principles governing their relationship. These principles are developed through scientific method of observation and verification through testing. Science is characterized by following main features: 1. Universally acceptance principles – Scientific principles represents basic truth about a particular field of enquiry. These principles may be applied in all situations, at all time & at all places. E. g. – law of gravitation which can be applied in all countries irrespective of the time.
Management also contains some fundamental principles which can be applied universally like the Principle of Unity of Command i. e. one man, one boss. This principle is applicable to all type of organization – business or non business. 2. Experimentation & Observation – Scientific principles are derived through scientific investigation & researching i. e. they are based on logic. E. g. the principle that earth goes round the sun has been scientifically proved. Management principles are also based on scientific enquiry & observation and not only on the opinion of Henry Fayol.
They have been developed through experiments & practical experiences of large no. of managers. E. g. it is observed that fair remuneration to personal helps in creating a satisfied work force. 3. Cause & Effect Relationship – Principles of science lay down cause and effect relationship between various variables. E. g. when metals are heated, they are expanded. The cause is heating & result is expansion. The same is true for management, therefore it also establishes cause and effect relationship. E. g. lack of parity (balance) between authority & responsibility will lead to ineffectiveness. If you know the cause i. e. ack of balance, the effect can be ascertained easily i. e. in effectiveness. Similarly if workers are given bonuses, fair wages they will work hard but when not treated in fair and just manner, reduces productivity of organization. 4. Test of Validity & Predictability – Validity of scientific principles can be tested at any time or any number of times i. e. they stand the test of time. Each time these tests will give same result. Moreover future events can be predicted with reasonable accuracy by using scientific principles. E. g. H2 & O2 will always give H2O. Principles of management can also be tested for validity.
E. g. principle of unity of command can be tested by comparing two persons – one having single boss and one having 2 bosses. The performance of 1st person will be better than 2nd. It cannot be denied that management has a systematic body of knowledge but it is not as exact as that of other physical sciences like biology, physics, and chemistry etc. The main reason for the inexactness of science of management is that it deals with human beings and it is very difficult to predict their behavior accurately. Since it is a social process, therefore it falls in the area of social sciences.
It is a flexible science & that is why its theories and principles may produce different results at different times and therefore it is a behavior science. Ernest Dale has called it as a Soft Science. Management as art Art implies application of knowledge & skill to trying about desired results. An art may be defined as personalized application of general theoretical principles for achieving best possible results. Art has the following characters – 1. Practical Knowledge: Every art requires practical knowledge therefore learning of theory is not sufficient. It is very important to know practical application of theoretical principles.
E. g. to become a good painter, the person may not only be knowing different colour and brushes but different designs, dimensions, situations etc to use them appropriately. A manager can never be successful just by obtaining degree or diploma in management; he must have also know how to apply various principles in real situations by functioning in capacity of manager. 2. Personal Skill: Although theoretical base may be same for every artist, but each one has his own style and approach towards his job. That is why the level of success and quality of performance differs from one person to another. E. . there are several qualified painters but M. F. Hussain is recognized for his style. Similarly management as an art is also personalized. Every manager has his own way of managing things based on his knowledge, experience and personality, that is why some managers are known as good managers (like Aditya Birla, Rahul Bajaj) whereas others as bad. 3. Creativity: Every artist has an element of creativity in line. That is why he aims at producing something that has never existed before which requires combination of intelligence & imagination. Management is also creative in nature like any other art.
It combines human and non-human resources in useful way so as to achieve desired results. It tries to produce sweet music by combining chords in an efficient manner. 4. Perfection through practice: Practice makes a man perfect. Every artist becomes more and more proficient through constant practice. Similarly managers learn through an art of trial and error initially but application of management principles over the years makes them perfect in the job of managing. 5. Goal-Oriented: Every art is result oriented as it seeks to achieve concrete results.
In the same manner, management is also directed towards accomplishment of pre-determined goals. Managers use various resources like men, money, material, machinery & methods to promote growth of an organization. Thus, we can say that management is an art therefore it requires application of certain principles rather it is an art of highest order because it deals with moulding the attitude and behavior of people at work towards desired goals. Management as both Science and Art Management is both an art and a science. The above mentioned points clearly reveals that management combines features of both science as well as art.
It is considered as a science because it has an organized body of knowledge which contains certain universal truth. It is called an art because managing requires certain skills which are personal possessions of managers. Science provides the knowledge & art deals with the application of knowledge and skills. A manager to be successful in his profession must acquire the knowledge of science & the art of applying it. Therefore management is a judicious blend of science as well as an art because it proves the principles and the way these principles are applied is a matter of art. Science teaches to ’know’ and art teaches to ’do’.
E. g. a person cannot become a good singer unless he has knowledge about various ragas & he also applies his personal skill in the art of singing. Same way it is not sufficient for manager to first know the principles but he must also apply them in solving various managerial problems that is why, science and art are not mutually exclusive but they are complementary to each other (like tea and biscuit, bread and butter etc. ). The old saying that “Manager are Born” has been rejected in favor of “Managers are Made”. It has been aptly remarked that management is the oldest of art and youngest of science.
To conclude, we can say that science is the root and art is the fruit. Levels of Management The term “Levels of Management’ refers to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an organization. The number of levels in management increases when the size of the business and work force increases and vice versa. The level of management determines a chain of command, the amount of authority & status enjoyed by any managerial position. The levels of management can be classified in three broad categories: – 1. Top level / Administrative level 2. Middle level / Executory 3.
Low level / Supervisory / Operative / First-line managers Managers at all these levels perform different functions. The role of managers at all the three levels is discussed below: 1. Top Level of Management It consists of board of directors, chief executive or managing director. The top management is the ultimate source of authority and it manages goals and policies for an enterprise. It devotes more time on planning and coordinating functions. The role of the top management can be summarized as follows – a. Top management lays down the objectives and broad policies of the enterprise. b.
It issues necessary instructions for preparation of department budgets, procedures, schedules etc. c. It prepares strategic plans & policies for the enterprise. d. It appoints the executive for middle level i. e. departmental managers. e. It controls & coordinates the activities of all the departments. f. It is also responsible for maintaining a contact with the outside world. g. It provides guidance and direction. h. The top management is also responsible towards the shareholders for the performance of the enterprise. 2. Middle Level of Management The branch managers and departmental managers constitute middle level.
They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. They devote more time to organizational and directional functions. In small organization, there is only one layer of middle level of management but in big enterprises, there may be senior and junior middle level management. Their role can be emphasized as – a. They execute the plans of the organization in accordance with the policies and directives of the top management. b. They make plans for the sub-units of the organization. c. They participate in employment & training of lower level management. . They interpret and explain policies from top level management to lower level. e. They are responsible for coordinating the activities within the division or department. f. It also sends important reports and other important data to top level management. g. They evaluate performance of junior managers. h. They are also responsible for inspiring lower level managers towards better performance. 3. Lower Level of Management Lower level is also known as supervisory / operative level of management. It consists of supervisors, foreman, section officers, superintendent etc.
According to R. C. Davis, “Supervisory management refers to those executives whose work has to be largely with personal oversight and direction of operative employees”. In other words, they are concerned with direction and controlling function of management. Their activities include – a. Assigning of jobs and tasks to various workers. b. They guide and instruct workers for day to day activities. c. They are responsible for the quality as well as quantity of production. d. They are also entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining good relation in the organization. e.
They communicate workers problems, suggestions, and recommendatory appeals etc to the higher level and higher level goals and objectives to the workers. f. They help to solve the grievances of the workers. g. They supervise & guide the sub-ordinates. h. They are responsible for providing training to the workers. i. They arrange necessary materials, machines, tools etc for getting the things done. j. They prepare periodical reports about the performance of the workers. k. They ensure discipline in the enterprise. l. They motivate workers. m. They are the image builders of the enterprise because they are in direct contact with the workers.
Functions of management Management has been described as a social process involving responsibility for economical and effective planning & regulation of operation of an enterprise in the fulfillment of given purposes. It is a dynamic process consisting of various elements and activities. These activities are different from operative functions like marketing, finance, purchase etc. Rather these activities are common to each and every manger irrespective of his level or status. Different experts have classified functions of management . According toGeorge & Jerry, “There are four fundamental functions of management i. e. lanning, organizing, actuating and controlling”. According to Henry Fayol, “To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, & to control”. Whereas Luther Gullick has given a keyword ’POSDCORB’ where P stands for Planning, O for Organizing, S for Staffing, D for Directing, Co for Co-ordination, R for reporting & B for Budgeting. But the most widely accepted are functions of management given by KOONTZ and O’DONNEL i. e. Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing and Controlling. For theoretical purposes, it may be convenient to separate the function of management but practically these functions are overlapping in nature i. . they are highly inseparable. Each function blends into the other & each affects the performance of others. [pic] Planning It is the basic function of management. It deals with chalking out a future course of action & deciding in advance the most appropriate course of actions for achievement of pre-determined goals. According to KOONTZ, “Planning is deciding in advance – what to do, when to do & how to do. It bridges the gap from where we are & where we want to be”. A plan is a future course of actions. It is an exercise in problem solving & decision making.
Planning is determination of courses of action to achieve desired goals. Thus, planning is a systematic thinking about ways & means for accomplishment of pre-determined goals. Planning is necessary to ensure proper utilization of human & non-human resources. It is all pervasive, it is an intellectual activity and it also helps in avoiding confusion, uncertainties, risks, wastages etc. Organizing It is the process of bringing together physical, financial and human resources and developing productive relationship amongst them for achievement of organizational goals.
According to Henry Fayol, “To organize a business is to provide it with everything useful or its functioning i. e. raw material, tools, capital and personnel’s”. To organize a business involves determining & providing human and non-human resources to the organizational structure. Organizing as a process involves: • Identification of activities. • Classification of grouping of activities. • Assignment of duties. • Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility. • Coordinating authority and responsibility relationships. Staffing
It is the function of manning the organization structure and keeping it manned. Staffing has assumed greater importance in the recent years due to advancement of technology, increase in size of business, complexity of human behavior etc. The main purpose o staffing is to put right man on right job i. e. square pegs in square holes and round pegs in round holes. According to Kootz & O’Donell, “Managerial function of staffing involves manning the organization structure through proper and effective selection, appraisal & development of personnel to fill the roles designed un the structure”.
Staffing involves: • Manpower Planning (estimating man power in terms of searching, choose the person and giving the right place). • Recruitment, selection & placement. • Training & development. • Remuneration. • Performance appraisal. • Promotions & transfer. Directing It is that part of managerial function which actuates the organizational methods to work efficiently for achievement of organizational purposes. It is considered life-spark of the enterprise which sets it in motion the action of people because planning, organizing and staffing are the mere preparations for doing the work.
Direction is that inert-personnel aspect of management which deals directly with influencing, guiding, supervising, motivating sub-ordinate for the achievement of organizational goals. Direction has following elements: • Supervision • Motivation • Leadership • Communication Supervision- implies overseeing the work of subordinates by their superiors. It is the act of watching & directing work & workers. Motivation- means inspiring, stimulating or encouraging the sub-ordinates with zeal to work. Positive, negative, monetary, non-monetary incentives may be used for this purpose.
Leadership- may be defined as a process by which manager guides and influences the work of subordinates in desired direction. Communications- is the process of passing information, experience, opinion etc from one person to another. It is a bridge of understanding. Controlling It implies measurement of accomplishment against the standards and correction of deviation if any to ensure achievement of organizational goals. The purpose of controlling is to ensure that everything occurs in conformities with the standards. An efficient system of control helps to predict deviations before they actually occur.
According to Theo Haimann, “Controlling is the process of checking whether or not proper progress is being made towards the objectives and goals and acting if necessary, to correct any deviation”. According to Koontz & O’Donell “Controlling is the measurement & correction of performance activities of subordinates in order to make sure that the enterprise objectives and plans desired to obtain them as being accomplished”. Therefore controlling has following steps: • Establishment of standard performance. • Measurement of actual performance. Comparison of actual performance with the standards and finding out deviation if any. • Corrective action. Planning means looking ahead and chalking out future courses of action to be followed. It is a preparatory step. It is a systematic activity which determines when, how and who is going to perform a specific job. Planning is a detailed programme regarding future courses of action. It is rightly said “Well plan is half done”. Therefore planning takes into consideration available & prospective human and physical resources of the organization so as to get effective co-ordination, contribution & perfect adjustment.
It is the basic management function which includes formulation of one or more detailed plans to achieve optimum balance of needs or demands with the available resources. Definition of Planning:- According to Koontz & O’Donell, “Planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do and who is to do it. Planning bridges the gap between where we are to, where we want to go. It makes possible things to occur which would not otherwise occur”. According to Urwick, “Planning is a mental predisposition to do things in orderly way, to think before acting and to act in the light of facts rather than guesses”.
Planning is deciding best alternative among others to perform different managerial functions in order to achieve predetermined goals. Steps in Planning Function Planning function of management involves following steps:- 1. Establishment of objectives a. Planning requires a systematic approach. b. Planning starts with the setting of goals and objectives to be achieved. c. Objectives provide a rationale for undertaking various activities as well as indicate direction of efforts. d. Moreover objectives focus the attention of managers on the end results to be achieved. e.
As a matter of fact, objectives provide nucleus to the planning process. Therefore, objectives should be stated in a clear, precise and unambiguous language. Otherwise the activities undertaken are bound to be ineffective. f. As far as possible, objectives should be stated in quantitative terms. For example, Number of men working, wages given, units produced, etc. But such an objective cannot be stated in quantitative terms like performance of quality control manager, effectiveness of personnel manager. g. Such goals should be specified in qualitative terms. h. Hence objectives should be practical, acceptable, workable and chievable. 2. Establishment of Planning Premises a. Planning premises are the assumptions about the lively shape of events in future. b. They serve as a basis of planning. c. Establishment of planning premises is concerned with determining where one tends to deviate from the actual plans and causes of such deviations. d. It is to find out what obstacles are there in the way of business during the course of operations. e. Establishment of planning premises is concerned to take such steps that avoids these obstacles to a great extent. f. Planning premises may be internal or external.
Internal includes capital investment policy, management labour relations, philosophy of management, etc. Whereas external includes socio- economic, political and economical changes. g. Internal premises are controllable whereas external are non- controllable. 3. Choice of alternative course of action a. When forecast are available and premises are established, a number of alternative course of actions have to be considered. b. For this purpose, each and every alternative will be evaluated by weighing its pros and cons in the light of resources available and requirements of the organization. . The merits, demerits as well as the consequences of each alternative must be examined before the choice is being made. d. After objective and scientific evaluation, the best alternative is chosen. e. The planners should take help of various quantitative techniques to judge the stability of an alternative. 4. Formulation of derivative plans a. Derivative plans are the sub plans or secondary plans which help in the achievement of main plan. b. Secondary plans will flow from the basic plan. These are meant to support and expediate the achievement of basic plans. c.
These detail plans include policies, procedures, rules, programmes, budgets, schedules, etc. For example, if profit maximization is the main aim of the enterprise, derivative plans will include sales maximization, production maximization, and cost minimization. d. Derivative plans indicate time schedule and sequence of accomplishing various tasks. 5. Securing Co-operation a. After the plans have been determined, it is necessary rather advisable to take subordinates or those who have to implement these plans into confidence. b. The purposes behind taking them into confidence are :- a.
Subordinates may feel motivated since they are involved in decision making process. b. The organization may be able to get valuable suggestions and improvement in formulation as well as implementation of plans. c. Also the employees will be more interested in the execution of these plans. 6. Follow up/Appraisal of plans a. After choosing a particular course of action, it is put into action. b. After the selected plan is implemented, it is important to appraise its effectiveness. c. This is done on the basis of feedback or information received from departments or persons concerned. . This enables the management to correct deviations or modify the plan. e. This step establishes a link between planning and controlling function. f. The follow up must go side by side the implementation of plans so that in the light of observations made, future plans can be made more realistic. Organizing is the function of management which follows planning. It is a function in which the synchronization and combination of human, physical and financial resources takes place. All the three resources are important to get results.
Therefore, organizational function helps in achievement of results which in fact is important for the functioning of a concern. Definition of organizing According toChester Barnard, “Organizing is a function by which the concern is able to define the role positions, the jobs related and the co- ordination between authority and responsibility. Hence, a manager always has to organize in order to get results. A manager performs organizing function with the help of following steps:- 1. Identification of activities – All the activities which have to be performed in a concern have to be identified first.
For example, preparation of accounts, making sales, record keeping, quality control, inventory control, etc. All these activities have to be grouped and classified into units. 2. Departmentally organizing the activities – In this step, the manager tries to combine and group similar and related activities into units or departments. This organization of dividing the whole concern into independent units and departments is called departmentation. 3. Classifying the authority – Once the departments are made, the manager likes to classify the powers and its extent to the managers.
This activity of giving a rank in order to the managerial positions is called hierarchy. The top management is into formulation of policies, the middle level management into departmental supervision and lower level management into supervision of foremen. The clarification of authority help in bringing efficiency in the running of a concern. This helps in achieving efficiency in the running of a concern. This helps in avoiding wastage of time, money, effort, in avoidance of duplication or overlapping of efforts and this helps in bringing smoothness in a concern’s working. 4.
Co-ordination between authority and responsibility – Relationships are established among various groups to enable smooth interaction toward the achievment of the organizational goal. Each individual is made aware of his authority and he/she knows whom they have to take orders from and to whom they are accountable and to whom they have to report. A clear organizational structure is drawn and all the employees are made aware of it. DIRECTING is said to be a process in which the managers instruct, guide and oversee the performance of the workers to achieve predetermined goals.
Directing is said to be the heart of management process. Planning, organizing, staffing have got no importance if direction function does not take place. Directing initiates action and it is from here actual work starts. Direction is said to be consisting of human factors. In simple words, it can be described as providing guidance to workers is doing work. In field of management, direction is said to be all those activities which are designed to encourage the subordinates to work effectively and efficiently. Definition of directing
According to Human, “Directing consists of process or technique by which instruction can be issued and operations can be carried out as originally planned” Therefore, Directing is the function of guiding, inspiring, overseeing and instructing people towards accomplishment of organizational goals. Direction has got following characteristics: 1. Pervasive Function – Directing is required at all levels of organization. Every manager provides guidance and inspiration to his subordinates. 2. Continuous Activity – Direction is a continuous activity as it continuous throughout the life of organization. . Human Factor – Directing function is related to subordinates and therefore it is related to human factor. Since human factor is complex and behaviour is unpredictable, direction function becomes important. 4. Creative Activity – Direction function helps in converting plans into performance. Without this function, people become inactive and physical resources are meaningless. 5. Executive Function – Direction function is carried out by all managers and executives at all levels throughout the working of an enterprise; a subordinate receives instructions from his superior only. . Delegate Function – Direction is supposed to be a function dealing with human beings. Human behaviour is unpredictable by nature and conditioning the people’s behaviour towards the goals of the enterprise is what the executive does in this function. Therefore, it is termed as having delicacy in it to tackle human behaviour. Controlling consists of verifying whether everything occurs in conformities with the plans adopted, instructions issued and principles established.
Controlling ensures that there is effective and efficient utilization of organizational resources so as to achieve the planned goals. Controlling measures the deviation of actual performance from the standard performance, discovers the causes of such deviations and helps in taking corrective actions Definition of controlling According to Brech, “Controlling is a systematic exercise which is called as a process of checking actual performance against the standards or plans with a view to ensure adequate progress and also recording such experience as is gained as a contribution to possible future needs. According to Donnell, “Just as a navigator continually takes reading to ensure whether he is relative to a planned action, so should a business manager continually take reading to assure himself that his enterprise is on right course. ” controlling as a management function involves following steps: Process of controlling 1. Establishment of standards- Standards are the plans or the targets which have to be achieved in the course of business function. They can also be called as the criterions for judging the performance. Standards generally are classified into two- a.
Measurable or tangible – Those standards which can be measured and expressed are called as measurable standards. They can be in form of cost, output, expenditure, time, profit, etc. b. Non-measurable or intangible- There are standards which cannot be measured monetarily. For example- performance of a manager, deviation of workers, their attitudes towards a concern. These are called as intangible standards. Controlling becomes easy through establishment of these standards because controlling is exercised on the basis of these standards. 2. Measurement of performance- The second major step in controlling is to measure the performance.
Finding out deviations becomes easy through measuring the actual performance. Performance levels are sometimes easy to measure and sometimes difficult. Measurement of tangible standards is easy as it can be expressed in units, cost, money terms, etc. Quantitative measurement becomes difficult when performance of manager has to be measured. Performance of a manager cannot be measured in quantities. It can be measured only by- a. Attitude of the workers, b. Their morale to work, c. The development in the attitudes regarding the physical environment, and d. Their communication with the superiors.
It is also sometimes done through various reports like weekly, monthly, quarterly, yearly reports. 3. Comparison of actual and standard performance- Comparison of actual performance with the planned targets is very important. Deviation can be defined as the gap between actual performance and the planned targets. The manager has to find out two things here- extent of deviation and cause of deviation. Extent of deviation means that the manager has to find out whether the deviation is positive or negative or whether the actual performance is in conformity with the planned performance.
The managers have to exercise control by exception. He has to find out those deviations which are critical and important for business. Minor deviations have to be ignored. Major deviations like replacement of machinery, appointment of workers, quality of raw material, rate of profits, etc. should be looked upon consciously. Therefore it is said, “ If a manager controls everything, he ends up controlling nothing. ” For example, if stationery charges increase by a minor 5 to 10%, it can be called as a minor deviation. On the other hand, if monthly production decreases continuously, it is called as major deviation.
Once the deviation is identified, a manager has to think about various cause which has led to deviation. The causes can be- a. Erroneous planning, b. Co-ordination loosens, c. Implementation of plans is defective, and d. Supervision and communication is ineffective, etc. 4. Taking remedial actions- Once the causes and extent of deviations are known, the manager has to detect those errors and take remedial measures for it. There are two alternatives here- a. Taking corrective measures for deviations which have occurred; and b.
After taking the corrective measures, if the actual performance is not in conformity with plans, the manager can revise the targets. It is here the controlling process comes to an end. Follow up is an important step because it is only through taking corrective measures, a manager can exercise controlling. Types of managers: ? Functional manager: The functional manager is responsible for only one functional area. Like ? Production manager, ? Finance manager. ? Marketing manager ? HR manager ? General manager: The individual responsible for all functional activities, such as production, sales etc…
MANAGERIAL ROLES A s a manager, you probably fulfill many different roles every day. For instance, as well as leading your team, you might find yourself resolving a conflict, negotiating new contracts, representing your department at a board meeting, or approving a request for a new computer system. Put simply, you’re constantly switching roles as tasks, situations, and expectations change. Management expert and professor, Henry Mintzberg, recognized this. He argued that there are ten primary roles or behaviors that can be used to categorize a manager’s different functions.
In this article we’ll examine these roles, and we’ll see how you can use your understanding of them to improve your management skills. The Roles Mintzberg published his Ten Management Roles in his book, “Mintzberg on Management: Inside our Strange World of Organizations,” in 1990. The ten roles are: 1. Figurehead. 2. Leader. 3. Liaison. 4. Monitor. 5. Disseminator. 6. Spokesperson. 7. Entrepreneur. 8. Disturbance Handler. 9. Resource Allocator. 10. Negotiator. [pic] The 10 roles are then divided up into three categories, as follows: Category |Role | |Interpersonal |Figurehead | | |Leader | | |Liaison | |Informational |Monitor | | |Disseminator | | |Spokesperson | |Decisional |Entrepreneur | | |Disturbance Handler | | |Resource Allocator | | |Negotiator | Interpersonal Category The roles in this category involve providing information and ideas. 1. Figurehead – As a manager, you have social, ceremonial and legal responsibilities. You’re expected to be a source of inspiration. People look up to you as a person with authority, and as a figurehead. 2.
Leader – This is where you provide leadership for your team, your department or perhaps your entire organization; and it’s where you manage the performance and responsibilities of everyone in the group. 3. Liaison – Managers must communicate with internal and external contacts. You need to be able to network effectively on behalf of your organization. Informational Category The roles in this category involve processing information. 1. Monitor – In this role, you regularly seek out information related to your organization and industry, looking for relevant changes in the environment. You also monitor your team, in terms of both their productivity, and their well-being. 2.
Disseminator – This is where you communicate potentially useful information to your colleagues and your team. 3. Spokesperson – Managers represent and speak for their organization. In this role you’re responsible for transmitting information about your organization and its goals to the people outside it. Decisional Category The roles in this category involve using information. 1. Entrepreneur – As a manager, you create and control change within the organization. This means solving problems, generating new ideas, and implementing them. 2. Disturbance Handler – When an organization or team hits an unexpected roadblock, it’s the manager who must take charge.
You also need to help mediate disputes within it. 3. Resource Allocator – You’ll also need to determine where organizational resources are best applied. This involves allocating funding, as well as assigning staff and other organizational resources. 4. Negotiator – You may be needed to take part in, and direct, important negotiations within your team, department, or organization. Better understanding of role 1. Figurehead Figureheads represent their teams. If you need to improve or build confidence in this area, start with your image, behavior, and reputation. Cultivate humility and empathy, learn how to set a good example at work, and think about how to be a good role model. 2. Leader
This is the role you probably spend most of your time fulfilling. To improve here, start by taking our quiz, how good Are Your Leadership Skills? This will give you a thorough understanding of your current abilities. Next, learn how to be an authentic leader, so your team will respect you. Also, focus on improving your emotional intelligence – this is an important skill for being an effective leader. 3. Liaison To improve your liaison skills, work on your professional networking techniques. You may also like to take our Bite-Sized Training course on Networking Skills. 4. Monitor To improve here, learn how to gather information effectively and overcome information overload.
Also, use effective reading strategies, so that you can process material quickly and thoroughly, and learn how to keep up-to-date with industry news. 5. Disseminator To be a good disseminator you need to know how to share information and outside views effectively, which means that good communication skills are vital. Learn how to share organizational information with Team Briefings. Next, focus on improving your writing skills. You might also want to take our communication skills quiz, to find out where else you can improve. 6. Spokesperson To be effective in this role, make sure that you know how to represent your organization at a conference. You may also want to read our articles on delivering great presentations and working with the media (if applicable to your role). 7. Entrepreneur
To improve here, build on your change management skills, and learn what not to do when implementing change in your organization. You’ll also need to work on yourproblem solving and creativity skills, so that you can come up with new ideas, and implement them successfully. 8. Disturbance Handler In this role, you need to excel at conflict resolution and know how to handle team conflict. It’s also helpful to be able to manage emotion in your team. 9. Resource Allocator To improve as a resource allocator, learn how to manage a budget, cut costs, andprioritize, so that you can make the best use of your resources. 10. Negotiator Improve your negotiation skills by learning about Win-Win Negotiation and Distributive. .