Multinational Corporation (Mnc) or Multinational Enterprise (Mne)

A multinational corporation (MNC) or multinational enterprise (MNE)[1] is a corporation enterprise that manages production or deliversservices in more than one country. It can also be referred to as an international corporation. The International Labour Organization (ILO) has defined[citation needed] an MNC as a corporation that has its management headquarters in one country, known as the home country, and operates in several other countries, known as host countries.

Some multinational corporations are very big, with budgets that exceed some nations’ gross domestic products (GDPs). Multinational corporations can have a powerful influence in local economies, and even the world economy, and play an important role in international relations and globalization. Apple Inc. formerly Apple Computer, Inc. is an American multinational corporation that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and personal computers. The company’s best-known hardware products are the Macintosh line of computers, the iPod, the iPhone and the iPad.

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Its software includes the Mac OS X operating system; the iTunes media browser; the iLife suite of multimedia and creativity software; the iWork suite of productivity software; Aperture, a professional photography package; Final Cut Studio, a suite of professional audio and film-industry software products; Logic Studio, a suite of music production tools; the Safari web browser; and iOS, a mobile operating system. As of July 2011, Apple has 357 retail stores in ten countries, and an online store.

It has been the largest publicly traded company in the world by market capitalization,[7][8] swapping spots with ExxonMobil, and the largest technology company in the world by revenue and profit. [9] As of September 24, 2011, the company had 60,400 permanent full-time employees and 2,900 temporary full-time employees worldwide; its worldwide annual sales totalled $65. 23 billion, growing to $108. 249 billion in 2011. Fortune magazine named Apple the most admired company in the United States in 2008, and in the world from 2008 to 2011. 10][11][12][13] However, the company has received widespread criticism for its contractors’ labor, and for its environmental and business practices. [14][15] Established on April 1, 1976 in Cupertino, California, and incorporated January 3, 1977,[16] the company was named Apple Computer, Inc. for its first 30 years. The word “Computer” was removed from its name on January 9, 2007,[17] as its traditional focus on personal computers shifted towards consumer electronics. [18] 1976–1980: The early years

Apple was established on April 1, 1976 by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne,[1] to sell the Apple I personal computer kit. They were hand-built by Wozniak[19][20] and first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. [21] The Apple I was sold as a motherboard (with CPU,RAM, and basic textual-video chips)—less than what is today considered a complete personal computer. [22] The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666. 66 Apple was incorporated January 3, 1977[16] without Wayne, who sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800.

Multi-millionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. [ By the end of the 1970s, Apple had a staff of computer designers and a production line. The company introduced the ill-fated Apple III in May 1980 in an attempt to compete with IBM and Microsoft in the business and corporate computing market. [35] Jobs and several Apple employees including Jef Raskin visited Xerox PARC in December 1979 to see the Xerox Alto.

Xerox granted Apple engineers three days of access to the PARC facilities in return for the option to buy 100,000 shares (800,000 split-adjusted shares) of Apple at the pre-IPO price of $10 a share. [36] Jobs was immediately convinced that all future computers would use a graphical user interface (GUI), and development of a GUI began for the Apple Lisa. [37] When Apple went public, it generated more capital than any IPO since Ford Motor Company in 1956 and instantly created more millionaires (about 300) than any company in history. In 1984, Apple next launched the Macintosh.

Its debut was announced by the now famous $1. 5 milliontelevision commercial “1984”. It was directed by Ridley Scott, aired during the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIIIon January 22, 1984,[39] and is now considered a watershed event for Apple’s success[40] and a “masterpiece”. [41][42] In 1985 a power struggle developed between Jobs and CEO John Sculley, who had been hired two years earlier. [45] The Apple board of directors instructed Sculley to “contain” Jobs and limit his ability to launch expensive forays into untested products.

Jobs resigned from Apple and founded NeXT Inc. the same year. [46] 1986–1993: Rise and fall Having learned several painful lessons after introducing the bulky Macintosh Portable in 1989, Apple introduced the PowerBook in 1991. The Macintosh Portable was designed to be just as powerful as a desktop Macintosh, but weighed 7. 5 kilograms (17 lb) with a 12-hour battery life. The same year, Apple introduced System 7, a major upgrade to the operating system, which added color to the interface and introduced new networking capabilities.

It remained the architectural basis for Mac OS until 2001. During this time Apple experimented with a number of other failed consumer targeted products including digital cameras, portable CD audio players, speakers, video consoles, and TV appliances. Enormous resources were also invested in the problem-plagued Newton divisionbased on John Sculley’s unrealistic market forecasts. [citation needed] Ultimately, all of this proved too-little-too-late for Apple as their market share and stock prices continued to slide. [citation needed] 1994–1997: Attempts at reinvention

In 1996, Michael Spindler was replaced by Gil Amelio as CEO. Gil Amelio made many changes at Apple, including extensive layoffs. [54] After multiple failed attempts to improve Mac OS, first with the Taligent project, then later with Copland and Gershwin, Amelio chose to purchase NeXT and its NeXTSTEP operating system, bringing Steve Jobs back to Apple as an advisor. [55] On July 9, 1997, Gil Amelio was ousted by the board of directors after overseeing a three-year record-low stock price and crippling financial losses.

Jobs became the interim CEO and began restructuring the company’s product line. 1998–2005: Return to profitability On August 15, 1998, Apple introduced a new all-in-one computer reminiscent of the Macintosh 128K: the iMac. The iMac design team was led by Jonathan Ive, who would later design the iPod and the iPhone. [59][60] The iMac featured modern technology and a unique design, and sold almost 800,000 units in its first five months. [61] On May 19, 2001, Apple opened the first official Apple Retail Stores in Virginia and California. 69]Later on July 9 they bought Spruce Technologies, a DVD authoring company. On October 23 of the same year, Apple announced the iPod portable digital audio player, and started selling it on November 10. The product was phenomenally successful — over 100 million units were sold within six years. [70][71 2007–2011: iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad Delivering his keynote speech at the Macworld Expo on January 9, 2007, Jobs announced that Apple Computer, Inc. would from that point on be known as Apple Inc. because computers were no longer the main focus of the company, which had shifted its emphasis to mobile electronic devices. The event also saw the announcement of the iPhone and the Apple TV. [83] The following day, Apple shares hit $97. 80, an all-time high at that point. In May, Apple’s share price passed the $100 mark. [84] In October 2010, Apple shares hit an all-time high, eclipsing $300. [98] Additionally, on October 20, Apple updated their MacBook Air laptop,iLife suite of applications, and unveiled Mac OS X Lion, the latest installment in their Mac OS X operating system. 99] On January 6, 2011, the company opened their Mac App Store, a digital software distribution platform, similar to the existing iOS App Store. [100] Apple was featured in the documentary Something Ventured which premiered in 2011. 2011–present: Post–Steve Jobs era On January 17, 2011, Jobs announced in an internal Apple memo that he would take another medical leave of absence, for an indefinite period, to allow him to focus on his health. Chief operating officer Tim Cook took up Jobs’ day-to-day operations at Apple, although Jobs would still remain “involved in major strategic decisions for the company. [101] Apple became the most valuable consumer-facing brand in the world. [102] On October 4, 2011, Apple announced the iPhone 4S, which includes an improved camera with 1080p video recording, a dual core A5 chip capable of 7 times faster graphics than the A4, an “intelligent software assistant” named Siri, and cloud-sourced data with iCloud. [110][111]One day later, on October 5, 2011, Apple announced that Jobs had died, marking the end of an era for Apple Inc. [ ————————————————- Culture Corporate

Apple was one of several highly successful companies founded in the 1970s that bucked the traditional notions of what a corporate cultureshould look like in organizational hierarchy (flat versus tall, casual versus formal attire, etc. ). Other highly successful firms with similar cultural aspects from the same period include Southwest Airlines and Microsoft. Originally, the company stood in opposition to staid competitors like IBM by default, thanks to the influence of its founders; Steve Jobs often walked around the office barefoot even after Apple was a Fortune 500 company.

By the time of the “1984” TV ad, this trait had become a key way the company attempted to differentiate itself from its competitors. [142] Users Apple’s brand’s loyalty is considered unusual for any product. At one time, Apple evangelists were actively engaged by the company, but this was after the phenomenon was already firmly established. Apple evangelist Guy Kawasaki has called the brand fanaticism “something that was stumbled upon”. [154] Apple has, however, supported the continuing existence of a network of Mac User Groups in most major and many minor centers of population where Mac computers are available.

Mac users would meet at the European Apple Expo and the San Francisco Macworld Conference & Expo trade shows where Apple traditionally introduced new products each year to the industry and public until Apple pulled out of both events. While the conferences continue, Apple does not have official representation there. Mac developers, in turn, continue to gather at the annual AppleWorldwide Developers Conference. ————————————————- Corporate affairs

During the Mac’s early history Apple generally refused to adopt prevailing industry standards for hardware, instead creating their own. [161]This trend was largely reversed in the late 1990s beginning with Apple’s adoption of the PCI bus in the 7500/8500/9500 Power Macs. Apple has since adopted USB, AGP, HyperTransport, Wi-Fi, and other industry standards in its computers and was in some cases a leader in the adoption of standards such as USB. [162] FireWire is an Apple-originated standard that has seen widespread industry adoption after it was standardized as IEEE 1394. [163] Headquarters Apple Inc. s world corporate headquarters are located in the middle of Silicon Valley, at 1-6 Infinite Loop, Cupertino, California. This Apple campus has six buildings that total 850,000 square feet (79,000 m2) and was built in 1993 by Sobrato Development Cos. [167] ————————————————- Finance In its fiscal year ending in September 2011, Apple Inc. hit new heights financially with $108 billion in revenues increased significantly from $65 billion in 2010 and nearly $82 billion available in cash reserve, but the market share decreased to 15 percent from 16. 6 percent. [219]

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