E7-2 (Determine Cash Balance) Presented below are a number of independent situations. Instructions For each individual situation, determine the amount that should be reported as cash. If the item(s) is not reported as cash, explain the rationale. 1. Checking account balance $925,000; certificate of deposit $1,400,000; cash advance to subsidiary of $980,000; utility deposit paid to gas company $180. 2.
Checking account balance $600,000; an overdraft in special checking account at same bank as normal checking account of $17,000; cash held in a bond sinking fund $200,000; petty cash fund $300; coins and currency on hand $1,350. 3. Checking account balance $590,000; postdated check from customer $11,000; cash restricted due to maintaining compensating balance requirement of $100,000; certified check from customer $9,800; postage stamps on hand $620. 4.
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Checking account balance at bank $37,000; money market balance at mutual fund (has checking privileges) $48,000; NSF check received from customer $800. 5. Checking account balance $700,000; cash restricted for future plant expansion $500,000; short-term Treasury bills $180,000; cash advance received from customer $900 (not included in checking account balance); cash advance of $7,000 to company executive, payable on demand; refundable deposit of $26,000 paid to federal government to guarantee performance on construction contract. . Cash balance of $925,000. Only the checking account balance should be reported as cash. The certificates of deposit of $1,400,000 should be reported as a temporary investment, the cash advance to subsidiary of $980,000 should be reported as a receivable, and the utility deposit of $180 should be identified as a receivable from the gas company. 2. Cash balance is $584,650 computed as follows: Checking account balance |$600,000 | | Overdraft |(17,000) | | Petty cash |300 | | Coin and currency | 1,350 | | |$584,650 |
Cash held in a bond sinking fund is restricted. Assuming that the bonds are noncurrent, the restricted cash is also reported as noncurrent. 3. Cash balance is $599,800 computed as follows: | Checking account balance |$590,000 | | Certified check from customer | 9,800 | | |$599,800 |
The postdated check of $11,000 should be reported as a receivable. Cash restricted due to compensating balance should be described in a note indicating the type of arrangement and amount. Postage stamps on hand are reported as part of office supplies inventory or prepaid expenses. 4. Cash balance is $85,000 computed as follows: Checking account balance |$37,000 | | Money market mutual fund | 48,000 | | |$85,000 | The NSF check received from customer should be reported as a receivable. 5. Cash balance is $700,900 computed as follows: Checking account balance |$700,000 | | Cash advance received from customer | 900 | | |$700,900 | Cash restricted for future plant expansion of $500,000 should be reported as a noncurrent asset. Short-term treasury bills of $180,000 should be reported as a temporary investment.
Cash advance received from customer of $900 should also be reported as a liability; cash advance of $7,000 to company executive should be reported as a receivable; refundable deposit of $26,000 paid to federal government should be reported as a receivable. 13. FIFO, weighted average, and LIFO methods are often used instead of specific identification for inventory valuation purposes. Compare these methods with the specific identification method, discussing the theoretical propriety of each method in the determination of income and asset valuation.
The first-in, first-out method approximates the specific identification method when the physical flow of goods is on a FIFO basis. When the goods are subject to spoilage or deterioration, FIFO is particularly appropriate. In comparison to the specific identification method, an attractive as-pect of FIFO is the elimination of the danger of artificial determination of income by the selection of advantageously priced items to be sold. The basic assumption is that costs should be charged in the order in which they are incurred.
As a result the inventories are stated at the latest costs. Where the inventory is consumed and valued in the FIFO manner, there is no accounting recognition of unrealized gain or loss. A criticism of the FIFO method is that it maximizes the effects of price fluctuations upon reported income because current revenue is matched with the oldest costs which are probably least similar to current replacement costs. On the other hand, this method produces a balance sheet value for the asset close to current replacement costs.
It is claimed that FIFO is deceptive when used in a period of rising prices because the reported income is not fully available since a part of it must be used to replace inventory at higher cost. The results achieved by the weighted average method resemble those of the specific identi-fication method where items are chosen at random or there is a rapid inventory turnover. Com-pared with the specific identification method, the weighted average method has the advantage that the goods need not be individually identified; therefore accounting is not so costly and the method can be applied to fungible goods.
The weighted average method is also appropriate when there is no marked trend in price changes. In opposition it is argued that the method is illogical. Since it assumes that all sales are made proportionally from all purchases and that inventories will always include units from the first purchases, it is argued that the method is illogical because it is contrary to the chronological flow of goods. In addition, in periods of price changes there is a lag between current costs and costs assigned to income or to the valuation of inventories.
If it is assumed that actual cost is the appropriate method of valuing inventories, last-in, first-out is not theoretically correct. In general, LIFO is directly adverse to the specific identification method because the goods are not valued in accordance with their usual physical flow. An exception is the application of LIFO to piled coal or ores which are more or less consumed in a LIFO manner. Proponents argue that LIFO provides a better matching of current costs and revenues.
During periods of sharp price movements, LIFO has a stabilizing effect upon reported income figures because it eliminates paper income and losses on inventory and smooths the impact of income taxes. LIFO opponents object to the method principally because the inventory valuation reported in the balance sheet could be seriously misleading. The profit figures can be artificially influenced by management through contracting or expanding inventory quantities.
Temporary in-voluntary depletion of LIFO inventories would distort current income by the previously unrecognized price gains or losses applicable to the inventory reduction. E8-14 (FIFO, LIFO and Average Cost Determination) John Adams Company’s record of transactions for the month of April was as follows. Purchases Sales April 1 (balance on hand) [email protected] $6. 00 April 3 500 @ $10. 0040 41,500 @ 6. 08 9 1,400 @ 10. 00 8 800 @ 6. 40 11600 @ 11. 00 131,200 @ 6. 50 231,200 @ 11. 00 21 700 @ 6. 60 27 900 @ 12. 0 29 500 @ 6. 79 4,600 5,300 (a) Assuming that periodic inventory records are kept in units only, compute the inventory at April 30 using (1) LIFO and (2) average cost. (b) Assuming that perpetual inventory records are kept in dollars, determine the inventory using (1) FIFO and (2) LIFO. (c) Compute cost of goods sold assuming periodic inventory procedures and inventory priced at FIFO. (d) In an inflationary period, which inventory method—FIFO, LIFO, average cost—will show the highest net income?