Test Corrections

2. John Wesley is associated with the founding of what religious sect? I chose to omit this question because I couldn’t remember with which “ism” John Wesley was associated. The correct answer is c. Methodism because in the “Impact of the Enlightenment” PowerPoint, a parenthetical mentions John Wesley in the description of Methodism. 6. Romanticism changed the direction of the Enlightenment by emphasizing… I answered a. skepticism which is incorrect because skepticism was more of a defining characteristic for movements like the Scientific Revolution.

The correct answer is c. emotion because Romanticism was a focus on the individual and nature which were ofter very emotional ordeals. 8. The Encyclopedia contributed to Enlightenment goals of social reform by… I answered c. providing systematic plans for social reform that could be used by anyone who was able to read which is incorrect because the Encyclopedia itself was not about social reform, and even if someone could read, he or she wouldn’t necessarily be able to understand the Encyclopedia. The correct answer is a. romoting the spread of knowledge that would be used to make informed decisions about social problems because the Encyclopedia’s direct influence was its spread of knowledge, which, in turn, was used to make informed decisions. 13. “In every government, there are three sorts of power…when the legislative and executive are united in the same person or in the same body of magistrates, there can be no liberty because…the same monarch or senate…(may) enact tyrannical laws. ” The author of this passage was: I answered e. Rousseau which is incorrect because although Rousseau favored epublicanism as stated in his The Social Contract, he never really made the distinction between the three branches of government. The correct answer is a. Montesquieu because he made the distinction of dividing the “administrative” powers into executive, legislative, and judicial branches. 14. Voltaire’s statement “Ecrasez l’infame” (crush the infamous thing) refers to… I answered a. the government of Louis XIV which is incorrect because Louis XIV died in 1715 when Voltaire was only 18 years old and hadn’t begun his writing career. The correct answer is b. igotry and intolerance because he thought that the royalty and the clergy bred “superstition and intolerance” within the people. 18. In his campaign for greater toleration, French Huguenot refugee Pierre Bayle (1647-1706) published his Historical and Critical Dictionary, which… I answered d. was an attempt to offer clear definitions of commonly used religious terminology that Bayle felt was too often misunderstood, a contributing factor to religious intolerance which is incorrect because Bayle’s Historical and Critical Dictionary wasn’t a literal dictionary in which terms were defined.

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The correct answer is c. listed the errors and delusions of an entire host of writers on religion in an effort to show that religions must be held accountable to reason because the word “dictionary” simply refers to the writers on religion, and rather that blaming religious terminology for religious intolerance, he wanted to express that religions should be held accountable to reason. 19. What is a major way that the Enlightenment in France differed from that in Germany? I answered a.

The German government wholeheartedly supported its intellectuals, including Lessing and Kant, while France’s philosophes faced censorship or arrest which is incorrect because this answer has the trigger word “wholeheartedly,” and philosophes faced censorship throughout Europe. The correct answer is c. French philosophes were far more aggressive in their condemnation of church and state than were German scholars because France has a history of breaking from the church freely such as with the Papal Schism, while Germany, being consumed by the Holy Roman Empire was tied closer with the church. 1. The only enlightened ruler who ended the personal aspects of serfdom was… I answered a. Catherine the Great of Russia which is incorrect because although the serfs under Catherine had limited rights, they were still bound to their nobles’ land, and were still owned by these nobles. The correct answer is b. Joseph II of Austria because his Imperial Patent of 1785 abolished serfdom. 25. The spread of Enlightenment ideals and the emergence of a more prosperous middle class in Europe were also reflected in music with… I answered d. rejection of baroque and all older styles of musical composition in favor of continuous innovation and experimentation which is incorrect because this answer has the trigger word “all,” and music at this time didn’t completely reject baroque styles because old styles will always be the basis for new styles. The correct answer is b. the transition from complex polyphony to an emphasis on more popularly accessible melody because this reflects a prosperous middle class which was both popular and accessible. 26. The Gordon riots, which devastated much of London in 1780, served as an xample of the fact that… I answered b. eighteenth-century governments, though aspiring to modern state management, were still far from their espoused goals which is incorrect because the Gordon riots rooted in political grievances as much as they were in religious agitation brought about by the Protestants. The correct answer is d. popular demonstrations did not always support reforms because the riots’ most prevalent effect was that Britain’s reputation was damaged right when they needed allies the most in the American War of Independence. 30. Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched? I answered c.

Catherine the Great—Instruction which is incorrect because Catherine did in fact write this work whose full title was “Instructions for the Guidance of the Assembly. ” The correct answer is e. Moses Mendelssohn—Confessions because Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote this, while Moses Mendelssohn wrote works such as his Philosophical Conversations. 32. The most important contribution Catherine the Great made early in her reign was the… I chose to omit this question because although I knew Catherine’s overall importance as an enlightened despot, I wasn’t sure on the specific contributions she made early on. The correct answer is a. stablishment of a legislative commission to review the laws of Russia because this was a real effort to share the power over Russia with a republican council in which the people could theoretically be represented. 49. Charlotte Corday assassinated Jean-Paul Marat in July 1793, in the belief that… I answered d. Marat had engineered the arrest and execution of Danton and his followers. which is incorrect because she wasn’t specifically concerned with avenging Danton’s death, but rather felt that she was avenging all of France. The correct answer is c. she was avenging innocent people executed because Marat had called for their heads. ecause even in her trial she claimed, “I killed one man to save 100,000,” showing her concern with the shear massiveness and unjustness of Marat’s Reign of Terror. 52. The fall from grace of Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety came about when Robespierre… I answered d. inaugurated a Cult of the Supreme Being, which many Catholics viewed as a brazen and blasphemous attempt to replace Christianity. which is incorrect because although anti-religious member of the Committee of Public Safety opposed this decree, they didn’t really do anything concrete about it.

The correct answer is a. began to order the execution of members of the Convention itself. because the planned strike against Jean-Lambert Tallien and Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier who were members of the Committee of General Security really was what tore the Committee of Public Safety apart and led to the arrest of Robespierre. 54. During the era of the French Revolution, the Thermidorian Reaction… I chose to omit this question because I couldn’t remember whether the Thermidorian Reaction led to the dissolution of the National Assembly or the Reign of Terror.

The correct answer is a. terminated the Reign of Terror and led to the execution of Robespierre. because it was the month of Thermidor when Robespierre’s planned strike against members of the Committee of General Security led to his execution. 55. The Committee of Public Safety was established to… I answered e. train a new generation of intendants who were more loyal to the bourgeoisie government in power in 1794. which is incorrect because the Committee of Public Safety was more of military establishment whose purpose was to protect the new republic rather than to ensure loyalty.

Loyalty was mainly ensured by the threat of the guillotine to anyone who resisted the republic. The correct answer is b. combat the dual threat of internal rebellion/counter-revolutionaries and foreign invasion. because it was a wartime measure put into place to protect the new and fragile republic. 59. According to the video and the text, what role did Jacques-Louis David play in the French Revolution? I answered d. He edited a newspaper that called for the execution of the king. which is incorrect because he was a painter, not a newspaper editor. The correct answer is c.

He was an artist who painted images of the Revolution and planned revolutionary festivals. because he organized various festivals beginning with a parade through the streets of Paris to bury Voltaire at the Pantheon, and he was a Neoclassical painter who strayed away from classical Rococo grandeur. 60. When French armies occupied an area, they… I answered a. brutally repressed the people living there according to the dictates of the Terror. which is incorrect because the Reign of Terror described the death of many by the guillotine, not by military brutality.

The correct answer is b. introduced the laws of the French Republic, such as the abolition of seigneurial dues. because the abolition of seigneurial dues, one of many Enlightenment ideals being implemented at this time, was enacted by the National Constituent Assembly in the “August Decrees. ” 62. Which of the following did NOT lead to the attack on the Bastille? I answered c. The marching of thousands of troops toward Paris by order of the king which is incorrect because the French Army was in fact encamped on the nearby Champs de Mars.

The correct answer is b. The massacre by Louis XVI’s troops of members of the National Assembly because although Louis had planned to march into the Salle des Etats where the National Assembly met, but he never did, and therefore, his troops never massacred members of the National Assembly. 63. The achievements of the Jacobins included ALL of the following EXCEPT… I answered a. abolition of slavery. which is incorrect because the Jacobins did in fact abolish slavery when they abolished feudalism. The correct answer is e. edistribution of all land among the peasants. because under the Jacobins, peasants only received limited rights and did not actually receive redistributed land. 65. Women… I answered b. took few leadership roles in revolutionary activities. which is incorrect because women did in fact hold important roles in the French Revolution like with the Women’s March on Versailles and with influential female writers like Mary Wollstonecraft and Olympe de Gouges. The correct answer is d. joined demonstrations, wrote petitions and tracts, and organized political clubs. ecause women were in fact important to the Revolution and did all of these named revolutionary acts. 68. The term September Massacres refers to… I answered b. The bloodiest days of the Reign of Terror; also known as the Great Terror which is incorrect because the September Massacres occurred over a year prior to the Reign of Terror. The correct answer is a. mobs that slaughtered over 1100 prisoners they believed were traitors because after Louis XVI fled the Tuileries Palace, a scared group made up mostly by sans-culottes massacred over 1100 Parisian prisoners.

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