The gender income gap
Abstract The Gender Wage Gap is something invented by prehistoric man back in the sass’s. Designed to keep women from making the same money and receiving the same benefits as their male counter-parts. This was a devise born in gender discrimination , intended to keep women in her place. When it was found to be unconstitutional they tried to fix it , but the monster had grown out of proportion. It had gotten so out of hand that no one not even the original creator could recognize it.
There are so many factors that make up the gap but the largest factor still remains as discrimination. The Gender Gap For as long as there have been Jobs and Women in the workplace. There still exists a terrible unaddressed form of gender prejudice. Statistics indicate that it doses*Г? matter if they have the same Skills, more time on the Job or the same Education. Women do not make the same money and receive the same benefits as men doing the same Job. How many female Coo’s have you seen in fortune 500 companies?
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According to Francine Blab & Lawrence Kahn from the National Bureau of Economic Research @ http://www. Never. Org/papers/we Both gender-specific factors,including gender differences in qualifications and discrimination, and overall age structure contributed to this ever increasing gap. As far back as 1957 women chose occupations for which on -the -Job training is less important, gender differences in occupations would also be expected. Women would especially avoid jobs requiring large investments in skills which are unique to a particular enterprise.
Because the returns to such investments are reaped only as long as one remains with that employer. At the same time, employers may be reluctant to hire women for such Jobs because the firm bears some of the cost of such firm-specific training, and ears not getting a full return on that investment. Many employers thought of women as temporary workers due to the probability of them leaving to start a family or already having a family or a successful husband who had the means to support them. Here lies the fallacy off man has to support his family.
The ever present threat of pregnancy loomed in the heads of most employers. The playing field was evened out a little with the emergence of the birth control pill. The Power of the Pill. According to Claudia Golden & Lawrence Katz from the National Bureau of Economic Research @ http://www. Never. Org/papers/7527 When the pill was introduced to the female population after FDA approval in the sass’s. Its had a direct positive effect on women’s career investment by almost eliminating the chance of getting pregnant and thus the cost of having sex.
The Pill also created a social multiplier effect by encouraging the delay of marriage generally and thus increasing a career woman’s likelihood of finding an appropriate mate after professional school. Even though women are outpacing men in getting college degrees thief not enough to close the gender pay gap. The American Association of University Women tackled he pay gap question by looking at workers of the same educational attainment*name kind of college, same grades;loading the same kinds of Jobs, and having made the same choices about marriage and number of kids.
They found that college-educated women earn 5 percent less the first year out of school than their male peers. Ten years later, even if they keep working on par with those men, the women earn 12% less. .. Jane Farrell and Sarah Jane Glenn explore the question of whether there is more gender equality among minority men and women than among whites…. Playing the Numbers. The Gender *rising High Education. According to Doyle, William R. Change. (May/June 2010) volume 42 Issue corporate Resources. There are two factors that contribute to the higher education gender gap in the US.
First, the gap begins, and in mostly accounted for, by gaps in high school completion. Second the labor market continues to provide differential earnings for men and women, even those who are similar in terms of the education, experience, and choice of careers. Even if women and men had similar educational credentials, scores on standardized tests, field of study, and degree from college of similar selectivity the gap in earnings would be about $4,400. The Gender Gap for Young Professionals in the Corporate and Financial sector.
According to a report written by M. Bertrand, C. Golden and L. Katz from the National Bureau of Economic Research @ http://www. Never. Org/papers/w14681 The career’s of Mamba’s, who graduated between 1990 and 2006 from a top US Business school, are studied to understand how career dynamics differ by gender. Although male and female Mamba’s have nearly identical (labor) incomes at the outset of their career’s , their earnings soon diverge , with a male annual earnings advantage reaching almost 60 log points and ten to 16 years after MBA completion.
There were three identifiable reasons for the large and rising gender gap in earnings: is differences in training prior to MBA graduation; differences in career interruptions; differences in weekly hours. Gender differences in earnings across the years following MBA completion. The presence of children is the main contributor to the lesser Job experience, greater career discontinuity and shorter work hours for female Mamba’s. Gender differences in the annual Income of psychiatrists. According to Weeks, W. B. , & Wallace. ,A. E. (2007)Psychiatric Services,58(4),51 5-20.
American Psychiatric Publishing,Len. In this article published on a study of the annual Income of female psychiatrists vs. that of male counterparts was 13% lower on an average from the 1980 thru to the 1990 and persisted on thru to 2001. It also stated that the female Doctor would more likely be employees of the practice, as opposed to having an ownership interest in the practice. This tells me that it din*Г? even matter how much education a woman had . Even in the halls of higher learning , there still existed this gender gap.
It din*Г? matter if she had the same Education as a male doctor, There was still no equality in pay. And you know there was no physical inhibitors. Why wives earn less than husbands. According to Kraft,Susan. American Demographics.. Jan 94, Volvo. 16 Issue 1, Corporate Resources. Some married women are closing the earnings gap with married men, but most work fewer hours and at lower paying Jobs. A woman has a hard time matching a mans income, even if the man doses*Г? work. Because men who don*Г? work still have income from unemployment, disability, pensions, and investments.
Working wives whose husbands don*Г? work make the largest contribution to family income, but even their contributions accounts for less than half(42%) of that segment’s aggregate income. Then we have the two income households, where many wives find it too expensive to work. Many dual income families must subtract the cost of child care, and a second car. They only add an addition 14% to the families income. So more than likely they are working for Job benefits. And last but not least according to Thatcher, J. (2013). Art Monthly 50:50, (367), 5-8.
Women are still woefully under-represented in the art world argues Jennifer Thatcher. :Last year an artist fired one of their studio assistants for being pregnant. She recalled that as soon as she made the announcement she was treated fervently , and spoken to as though she had made a huge mistake. Despite working as hard as she could in an attempt to prove she could manage the work. She was eventually asked to leave and forgo her rights to statutory maternity pay. There lies the Physical inhibitors, Gender Specific discrimination.
This type of discrimination still exists in the work place, and they are not trying to hide it. To be spoken to and treat like you had a disorder of some sort is Just not exceptionable and against the law. For over 50 years women have suffered the consequences of this wage gap, between them and their male counter-parts. Since 1963 there has been a bill sitting in the halls of Justice and not in-forced due to its lack of Importance to our nations leaders (UN-popular). Women have suffered UN-imaginable hardships caused from this gap . Women are doomed from the beginning starting with their very first paycheck.
The gap Just gets wider and wider not stopping until they receive their very last Social Security check. This gap has had serious ramifications for women and their families. What happened to our human rights? I thought I lived in America, we have gone to war in foreign countries defending their human rights. But when this issue comes up , they Just explain it away by saying men have to support their families Based on the evidence that I have submitted, you be the Judge is it fair that men and women doing the same Job don*Г? get paid the same money? This is discrimination in its worst form.