AP Psychology Chapter 14

The text defines social psychology as the scientific study of how people______ one another.
think about, influence, and relate to
Ksana insists that her boyfriend’s car accident resulted from his carelessness. Her explanation for the accident provides an example of
a dispositional attribution
How does our explanation of stranger’s behavior differ from that of our own behavior?
We explain stranger’s behavior in terms of personality traits and our own behavior in terms of situational constraints.
People are especially likely to demonstrate the fundamental attribution error in cultures that value
individualism
Fundamental Attribution Error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
Observing yourself on a videotape is most likely to increase you tendency to attribute your behavior to
personality traits
Poverty and unemployment are likely to be explained in terms of personal dispositions by ______ and in terms of situational influences by _______
political conservatives; political liberals
Feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in particular ways to objects, people, and events are called
attitudes
Politicians who publicly oppose a tax increase that they privately favor best illustrate that
actions may sometimes be inconsistent with attitudes
Aleksis has recently begun to bully and hurt his younger brother, If this behavior continues, it is likely that Aleksis will
develop an increasing dislike for his brother
The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to
comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request
Phillip Zimbardo devised a stimulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This experiment best illustrates the impact of
role-playing on attitudes
Having observed participants in his stimulated prison study, Phillip Zimbardo offered an explanation for the destructive behavior of U.S. military guards at Iraq’s Abu Ghraib Prison. Zimbardo’s explanation best exemplified
a situational attribution
Which theory best explains why our actions can lead us to modify our attitudes?
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
During a test, Abe impulsively copied several answers from a nearby student’s paper. He felt very uncomfortable about having done this until he convinced himself that copying answers is not wrong if classmates are careless enough to expose their test sheets, Which theory best explains why Abe adopted this new attitude?
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Cognitive Dissonance Theory is most helpful for understanding
the foot-in-the-door phenoenon
Unconsciously mimicking those around us is known as
the chameleon effect
Which of the following is most likely to help us empathize with others?
the chameleon effect
We tend to feel cheerful around happy people and sad around depressed people. This illustrates
mood linkage
Mr. Jones is a member of the faculty committee on academic standards at a local private school. He personally disagrees with the other committee members’ proposed plan to begin accepting students with below-average grades. Mr. Jones is most likely, however, to vote in favor o their plan if
the other committee members are unanimous in their opinion
Accepting others’ opinions about reality is to ______ as the desire to gain approval is to ______.
informational social influence; normative social influence
When the task of correctly identifying an individual in a slide of a four-person lineup was both difficult and important, participants in an experiment were especially likely to conform to other’s wrong answers. The best illustrates the impact of
informational social influence
Informational Social Influence
influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept other’s opinions about reality
Normative Social Influence
influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
Most people are likely to be surprised by the results of Milgrams initial obedience experiment because
the “teachers” were more obedient than most people would have predicted
The Milgram obedience experiments were controversial becuse the
“teachers” were deceived and frequently subjected to stress
In 1942, German reserve police officers obeyed orders to kill some 1500 Jews in the village of Jozefow, Poland, This incident illustrated that people are most likely to be destructively obedient when
they perceive their orders to come from legitament authority figures
According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that
even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of detruction
The gradually escalating levels of destructive obedience in the Milgram experiments best illustrate one of the potential dangers of
the foot-in-the-door phenonmenon
On which of the following tasks would the presence of others be MOST likely to lead to improved performance?
counting backwards from 10 to 1
How does the presence of observers affect a person’s performance?
It improves performance on easy tasks and hinders a person’s performance on difficult tasks
The presence of others does not always lead to social facilitation because
arousal encourages performance of the most likely response
Social loafing is MOST likely to occur among
audience members who are asked to applaud after a speaker is introduced
In which of the following groups is social loafing LEAST likely?
factory workers who are each paid on a basis of the numbers of bicycles each assembles individually
Groups of citizens who identified themselves as politically liberal and groups of citizens who identified themselves as conservative were asked to discuss socially relevant issues such as affirmative action and same-sex union. After group discussion, the liberal groups expressed increasingly ____ positions and the conservative groups expressed increasingly _____ positions.
Conservative; Liberal
Which of the following processes most obviously operates in groupthink?
Group Polarization
Group Polarization
the enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
The NASA executive who made the final decision to launch the space shuttle Challenger was shielded from information and dissenting views that might have led to a delay of the tragic launch. This best illustrates the dangers of
groupthink
The preservation of innovation best illustrates the survival value of
culutre
People are most likely to notice the impact of environmental influences on behavior when confronted by
cultural diversity
Those who study cultural influences on behavior are most likely to highlight the importance of
norms
In comparison to 40 years ago, American women today are more likely to marry for the sake of
romantic love
Since 1960, Americans have experienced an
increase in the incidence of depression and an increase in work hours
Research indicated that minorities are most influential when they
unswerving hold to their own postition
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