APUSH CH. 20: The Progressives (1867-1901)

Progressivism
The movement beginning in the late 1800s to increase democracy in America by curbing the power of the corporation. It fought to end corruption in government and business, and worked to bring equal rights of women and other groups that had been left behind during the industrial revolution.
Antimonopoly
Powerful Progressive impulse to limit and disperse wealth. Had much in common with Populism, empowered the government to regulate or break up trusts.
Social Cohesion
The strength of the social bonds in society between people of different ethno-cultural backgrounds or socio-economic classes
Muckraker
Writer or journalist of the early 1900s who uncovered shameful conditions in business and other areas of American life.
Ida Tarbell
A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work, A History of Standard Oil.
Lincoln Steffens
Famous muckraker who exposed the corruption of political machines in the cities in his book The Shame of the Cities.
Social Gospel
Movement that taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization
Salvation Army
This welfare organization came to the US from England in 1880 and sought to provide food, shelter, and employment to the urban poor while preaching temperance and morality. Christian based organization.
Settlement House Movement
Places that offered social services to urban poor and immigrants- often food, shelter, and basic education. Hull House was the most famous.
Jane Adams
Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class. In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U.S., to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English.
Professionalism
Movement that emphasized an imposition of standards, licensing of practitioners, and accreditation of professional schools.
The “New Woman”
Product of social and economic changes. Wage earning activity had moved out of house and into factory or office, children enrolled in school at earlier ages, technology (running water, electricity) made housework less of a burden, declining family size.
“Boston Marriages”
The relationship between women who lived together, often in long-term, sometimes romantic, relationships.
Suffrage
The right to vote in political elections
Nineteenth Amendment
1920, guarantees women the right to vote.
Secret Ballot
Voters do not reveal who they vote for or how they vote on an issue because their decision is made in private. This keeps the election fair and free from threat or intimidation.
Social Democracy
a political ideology in which there is a gradual transition from capitalism to socialism instead of a sudden violent overthrow of the system
City Manager Plan
Legislation designed to break up political machines and replace traditional political management of cities with trained professional urban planners and managers.
Initiative
Allowed reformers to circumvent state legislation by submitting new legislation directly to the voters in general elections. Increased the power and influence of the electorate.
Referendum
Provided a method by which actions of the legislature could be returned to the electorate for approval. Gave more power to the voters.
Direct Primary
An election in which voters choose candidates to represent each party in a general election
Recall
Gave citizens a chance to remove an elected official from office before the person’s term ended. Expanded the power of the electorate.
Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire
1911, killed 146 people– mostly women. They died because the doors were locked and the windows were too high for them to get to the ground. Brought attention to the poor working conditions and let to federal regulations to protect workers.
Booker T. Washington
Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881.
W. E. Du Bois
First African-American to recieve a doctorate. America’s foremost black intellectual at the turn of the twentieth century, and an outspoken leader of the black cause. He disagreed with Booker T. Washington’s accommodationist posture and called upon blacks to insist on equal rights. He was a founder of the NAACP and editor of its journal, “The Crisis.”
Eighteenth Amendment
forbid the sale and manufacture of liquor making it illegal in 1919.
Anti-lynching Movement
Movement against the illegal mob execution of African Americans in the South, led by Ida B. Wells.
Temperance Crusade
Supported mostly by women and employers. Alcohol was viewed as an inhibitor to performance in families and factories; Women’s Christian Temperance Union formed; pressed for legislative abolition of saloons.
Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
A group of women who advocated total abstinence from alcohol and who worked to get laws passed against alcohol. The group also championed other progressive ideas like the eight-hour work day, the regulation of child labour, food safety, and equal marriage and divorce laws.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
founded in 1909 to fight segregation,discrimination, and racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans; brought numberous cases into the US court system to try to break down racial barriers and gain constitutional rights for minorities
Eugenics Movement
The idea that a “bad” genetic traits could be bred out and good traits could promoted in order to improve society. Some Americans believed that the society could be improved by controlled breeding. They accomplished this by sterilizing many criminals and the mentally handicapped.
Nativism
The belief that native-born Americans are superior to foreigners.
Socialism
A political theory or system in which the means of production and distribution are controlled by the society (usually the government) and operated according to equity and fairness rather than market principles.
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Eugene Debs
Leader of the American Railroad Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over. He also ran for president of the US several times as a socialist.
Louis Brandeis
Brilliant lawyer and later a justice of the Supreme court spoke and wrote widely about the “curse of bigness.” He thought the government should help small businesses. he was the first Jewish Supreme Court Justice.
Regulation
Efforts by government to alter the free operation of the market to achieve social goals such as protecting workers and the environment.
“Good Trusts” and “Bad Trusts”
If a trust controlled an entire industry but provided good service at reasonable rates, it was a “good” trust to be left alone. Only the “bad” trusts that inflated rates and exploited consumers would come under attack according to Theodore Roosevelt.
The Square Deal
Theodore Roosevelt used this term to describe his approach to social problems. It embraced his idealistic view of labour, citizenship, parenthood, and Christian ethics. He first used the term after the settlement of a mining strike in 1902 to describe the ideal of peaceful coexistence between big business and labor unions. The concept became part of the Bull Moose Party platform when Roosevelt became its candidate in 1912.
Pure Food and Drug Act
Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the “patent” drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA. One of the first consumer protection laws.
Meat Inspection Act
Law that authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption.
Conservation
The preservation and careful management of the environment and of natural resources. Theodore Roosevelt supported the movement in the early 1900s and set aside millions of acreas of wilderness for recreational use.
Preservation
Maintenance of a resource in its present condition, with as little human impact as possible.
Gifford Pinchot
One of the country’s first scientific foresters, appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1881 as the chief of the newly created Division of Forestry in the Department of Agriculture; worked to develop programs and public interest in conservation, but was fired in 1910 by President William Howard Taft after exposing a supposed scandal
National Reclamation Act
backed by Roosevelt in 1902, it provided federal funds for the construction of damns, reservoirs, and canals in the West—projects that would open new lands for cultivation and provide cheap electric power later on.
John Muir
He went on a campaign for awareness of the environment; inspired creation of Yosemite National Park; became president of the Sierra Club, which was devoted to conservation.
National Forest System
Created in part by Pinchot. Expanded by Roosevelt as a way to protect the landscape for continued and responsible lumbering.
National Park System
Created by T. Roosevelt to protect public land from exploitation/development. First national park was Yellowstone in Wyoming. Land was added to parks and new ones were created.
Hetch Hetchy Controversy
Controversy over whether to build a dam in a large valley in Yosemite National Park to create a reservoir for San Francisco. The dam was eventually built.
Panic of 1907
A serious economic recession, proved the government still had little control over the industrial economy. Conservatives blamed Roosevelt’s mad economic policies for the disaster. The president disagreed, but acted quickly to reassure business leaders that he wouldn’t interfere with their private recovery efforts.
Children’s Bureau
A federal agency established by president Taft to investigate and publicize child labor problems.
Robert La Follette
The most celebrated state-level reformer who was elected governor of Wisconsin in 1900. Under his leadership the progressives won approval of direct primaries, initiatives, and referendums. He regulated railroads and utilities, passed laws to regulate the workplace and provided workers compensation, instituted graduated taxes on inherited fortunes, and nearly doubled state levies on railroads and other corporate interests. He greatly widened public awareness of progressive goals.
New Nationalism
Program that Theodore Roosevelt ran on in the election of 1912; large corporations had to be controlled and regulated by a strong President and the federal government that would protect the rights of women, labor, and children.
Election of 1912
Presidential campaign involving Taft, T. Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson. Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican vote, enabling Wilson to win.
The Progressive Party
Also known as the “Bull Moose” Party, known for its strong commitment to progressive causes that had become popular over the past two decades. The party advocated additional regulation of industry and trusts, sweeping reforms of many areas of government, compensation by the government for workers injured on the job, pensions for the elderly and for widows with children, and women suffrage.
New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson’s program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912. His domestic policy emphasized business competition and small government. It sought to reign in federal authority, release individual energy, and restore competition. It echoed many of the progressive social-justice objectives while pushing for a free economy rather than a planned one.
Federal Reserve Act
1913: A major reform of American banking system. It created twelve regional banks, each to be earned and controlled by the individual banks of its district. The Federal Reserves banks would hold a certain percentage of the assets of their memeber banks in reserve; they would use those reserves to support loans to private banks at an interest or “discount” rate that the Federal Reserve system would set; and they would issue a new set of paper currency–Federal Reserve notes–that would become the nations medium of trade and would be backed by the government.
Keatings-Owen Act
1916–Supported by Wilson, the first federal law regulating child labor. Prohibited the shipment of goods produced by underage children across state lines. Court invalidated the Act in 1918.
Industrial Workers of the World
Founded in 1905, this radical union, also known as the Wobblies aimed to unite the American working class into one union to promote labor’s interests. It worked to organize unskilled and foreign-born laborers, advocated social revolution, and led several major strikes. Stressed solidarity.
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