Ch. 4 Age of Exploration

Which nation ultimately won complete control over India?
England
Which product imported from Europe changed the lives of native americans living on the great plains in north America?
Horses
Slaveholders didn’t want enslaved people to have children because
Buying a slave was thought to be less expensive than rearing a child from birth
Conquistadors main advantage over Aztec and Inca empires was their
Types of weaponry
Spanish and Portuguese kings appointed ______ to govern their colonies in Latin America
Viceroys
Why could only peninsulares hold important government positions in Latin America?
Peninsulares were born in the parent countries that founded their colonies
The more that European countries expanded in the Americas, the more they increased the
Slaves trade from west Africa
Portuguese were the first to explore other lands because they had
Superior ships
The Dutch traded luxury items from India as well as enslaved people from west Africa as an attempt to
Become less dependent on Spain and Portugal and gain wealth
The Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in 1494,
Established a line between territories controlled by Spain and those controlled by Portugal
The process by which an African person became enslaved in the Americas began with
Exchange of European-made goods for African slaves
What is the correct list of social classes from colonial Latin America from highest to lowest
Peninsulares, Creoles, mestizos, mulattos
Juana Inés de la Cruz wrote
Poetry and prose and urged that women be educated
The Dutch competed successfully for trade in Asia because of the
Development of a new ship along with the growth of mercantilism in the Dutch Republic
One effect of the slave trade on African societies was
Decreased populations in some areas
Why were enslaved Africans needs in the Caribbean islands?
Native American population was small due to diseases brought by Europeans
Christopher Columbus called Honduras and the Caribbean Islands the Indies because he
Thought he was in Asia instead of the Americas
How did Catholic missionaries aid European powers in controlling the lives of Native Americans?
They brought Native Americans together in villages where they were taught trades and encouraged to grow crops
What helped Portuguese explorers in their travels?
Knowledge of wind patterns
Potatoes from America spurred population growth in Europe because they
Yielded more food per acre than previous crop
Why were African slaves imported to work on encomiendas in Latin America?
Harsh working conditions caused a decline in Native American laborers
What explains why encomiendas was a failure?
Native Americans often abused instead of being protected by settlers
Early Dutch settlements in north America didn’t succeed because
Conflicts with Spain and Portugal bankrupted thr Dutch West India Company
Which of the European rivals formed the West India Company to gain a foothold in the Americas in the 16th Century
Dutch
Why did the Catholic church have so much influence in Latin America?
Spanish and Portuguese rulers wanted Native Americans to become Catholic
When British opened trading posts in the East, they brought cotton goods from India to the West Indies in order to
Barter for spices
The Catholic church contributed to the colonization of Latin America by
Setting up a network of missions to convert and educate Native Americans
In trading with their Latin American colonies, Spain and Portugal exported mainly
Manufactured goods
Social class in Latin America in the 1500s was based on
Status
What were the most important Latin American natural resources for Spain?
Silver and gold
What other countries settled in the Americas, challenging the financial control enjoyed by the Spanish and Portuguese?
Netherlands, France, and England
The Seven Year War resulted in
France’s withdrawal from India
How did the Portuguese and Spanish make money from their Latin American colonies?
Farming and mining
What made the 17th century a golden age of commerce for the Dutch
Domination of the spice trade in India
The Portuguese monarchy exerted its power over Brazil by
Appointing a viceroy to govern the country
Europeans began to explore and expand in the 1500s because they wanted to
Gain riches, find adventure, and spread religion
Vasco da Gama’s discovery of a route to India by sea proves to be
Very profitable, since da Gama returned with a valuable cargo of spices
What advantage did better weaponry give Spanish conquistadors over the Aztec and Inca empires?
It allowed relatively fewer men to control large populations
Why did Portuguese and Spanish explorers sail in different directions to find a route to Asia?
Underestimated size of Atlantic Ocean and thought Asia was large enough that it wrapped around the earth and could be reach from both sides
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