Ciccarelli Psychology, Chapter 12 Study Plan

The fact that Kitty Genovese did not receive help was most likely due to _____.
the presence of multiple witnesses (Bystander Effect)
Research on conformity suggests that if a _____ response is required, ______ show more conformity than ______.
public; women; men
The war in Iraq, the design of the ship Titanic, and the Challenger disaster are all given in the textbook as examples of
groupthink.
Attitudes
are learned through experiences and contact with others.
People can reduce cognitive dissonance by
forming new cognitions to justify their behavior.
Scapegoats are
typically weaker members of the out-group.
Strategies for overcoming prejudice include
“jigsaw classroom”/”overall goal” oriented education and equal status contact.
The sadistic behavior of the “guards” in Philip Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Study
highlighted the influence that a social role can have on ordinary people.
In Solomon Asch’s study, confederates were instructed to
give the incorrect answer to the line-matching task.
A person demanding _______ has power or authority to command a behavioral change, rather than just ask for a change.
obedience
In the Milgram study and several similar studies, between _____ percent of the participants went all the way up to the 450-volt shock level.
61 and 66
A person tries to change the belief, opinion, or course of action of another person through
persuasion.
_____ is the attitude about members of a particular social group and _____ is the behavior that can result from that attitude.
Prejudice; discrimination
The formation of in-groups and out-groups
begins in childhood.
The effect that people’s awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior is
stereotype vulnerability.
According to Sternberg, love consists of intimacy, passion, and
commitment.
Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love says that companionate love consists of
intimacy and commitment.
Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love says that romantic love consists of
intimacy and passion
_______ occurs when a person fails to take responsibility for actions or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility.
Diffusion of responsibility
Studies have found that the _____ is particularly active when people have made a decision that reduces dissonance and then acted on that decision.
left frontal cortex
If your roommate asks you for a ride to campus and you agree, and then the next day asks if he can borrow your car, it is an example of the
foot-in-the-door technique.
Cindy tastes peas for the first time and realizes she does not like them. Cindy formed her attitude about peas through the process of
direct contact.
Justin walks into the morning meeting 15 minutes late. His boss, Marco, assumes that traffic was bad this morning. Marco is using an example of
situational cause.
Shawn and Tanya start talking after they’ve ridden on the dorm elevator several times together. This is an example of which rule of attraction?
proximity/mere exposure effect
Karen intentionally tries to hurt Lisa by spreading rumors about her. Karen is engaging in
aggression.
Jim jumped into the ocean to save a drowning man, risking his own life in the process. This is an example of
altruism.
People who are in a good mood are less likely to help if
helping will destroy their good mood.
Zimbardo’s prison guard experiment supports the idea that
taking on particular social roles can lead to an increase in aggressive behavior.
_______ love, based on many years of shared responsibilities and experiences, is what binds many marriages together.
Companionate
When one person meets another person for the first time, ________ occurs.
impression formation
In the Latane and Darley smoke-filled room study, participants were most likely to report the smoke when
they were the only ones in the room.
Research suggests a relationship between the social network sites particular students use and their
ethnicity.
When prejudicial attitudes cause members of a particular social group to be treated differently than the others in situations that call for equal treatment, it is called
discrimination.
_________ has been linked to higher levels of aggression.
Testosterone
_________ is common in college settings, where students and instructors from many different backgrounds live, work, and study together.
Intergroup contact
Once someone has taken responsibility to help, the next step in the decision-making process is
planning a course of action.
Julie is a psychologist involved in figuring out how to get people to purchase a certain brand of computer. Julie is involved in
consumer psychology.
If Julie holds the specific attitude that smoking is bad and will likely have an adverse effect on her health, possibly causing lung cancer or emphysema, Julie is
more likely to match her behavior to her attitude by not smoking.
Harry’s friend Logan studies a lot, so Harry assumes that Logan is smart. Harry’s belief is based on
implicit personality theory.
Chris’s roommate asks Chris to do him a favor, and Chris agrees. Chris is showing
compliance.
When parents tell their children that smoking cigarettes is dangerous and unhealthy, and the children develop negative attitudes toward smoking, it is an example of
direct instruction.
A police officer comes to Jane’s office to discuss personal safety with the employees there. Despite the seriousness of his message, the police officer jokes and laughs with the employees. Jane nonetheless takes what she learned seriously and begins to pay more attention to her safety. Jane used ______ when receiving the officer’s message.
central-route processing
Carol is told by a police officer to move her car, and she does so. Carol is showing
obedience.
The door-in-the-face technique involves
asking for a large commitment and then, after being refused, asking for a smaller commitment.
When trying to persuade an audience, the message should
present both sides of the argument.
As we interact with others on a daily basis, our behavior, feelings, and thoughts are often guided by
social influence.
Groupthink can be minimized by
voting by secret ballot
Studies have found that in civil suits, if individual members of the jury favor stiff penalties, the deliberation process will result in even higher penalties. This illustrates
group polarization.
Fritz Heider developed _______ to explain why people choose the particular explanations of behavior that they do.
attribution theory
In Milgram’s obedience experiment, no “teacher” stopped administering electric shock to the “learner” before
300 volts.
In order to teach her second grade students about ______, teacher Jane Elliot created in-groups and out-groups based on the superficial characteristic of eye color.
discrimination
Sigmund Freud believed that aggression is
a basic human instinct.
The ABC Model of Attitudes includes
Affect, Behavior, and Cognition.
In Milgram’s study, as the teachers became reluctant to continue, the experimenter
told them that they had to continue.
The “jigsaw classroom”
is a technique that gives each individual only part of the information needed to solve a problem, so they must work with others to find the solution
In one study, college students liked another student simply because they were told that the other student liked them. This is an example of which rule of attraction?
reciprocity
The that’s-not-all technique activates
the norm of reciprocity.
Sheri’s coworker, Stephanie, is extremely scared of spiders and screams every time she sees one in the warehouse. After a few weeks of working closely with Stephanie in the warehouse, Sheri is scared of spiders, too. This is
vicarious conditioning.
Studies have shown that when participants “shock” a virtual human on the computer,
they have the same emotional responses as if it were a real person.
Sherif’s 1936 study of conformity involved
asking participants to report the movement of a single point of light in a darkened room.
Assigning a person you have just met to a category based on characteristics they have in common with other people or groups whom you have had prior experience with is called
social categorization.
Some research suggests that ______ is one of the main factors that influence people’s choices for selecting people they want to know better.
physical attractiveness
According to the ________, people either expand on what they hear or they pay attention to surface characteristics of persuasive messages.
elaboration likelihood model
In explaining our own behavior, we tend to use situational attributions rather than personal, which is
the actor-observer bias.
Nicole thinks of herself as an honest, trustworthy person. However, when she doesn’t get time to study, she cheats on her history test. Nicole will probably experience
cognitive dissonance.
According to your textbook, the _____ theory explains prejudice and discrimination between the Nazi soldiers and Jewish people during WWII.
realistic conflict
The Challenger disaster is a classic example of groupthink because
some people knew the shuttle was not OK to launch but did not speak up and therefore disrupt group cohesion.
Studies have shown that when a person is happy in a marriage, they attribute ________ to dispositional cause.
their spouse’s positive actions
Jackie is assigned to a group project. It is in her best subject, and she finds the material easy. Jackie will probably experience
social loafing.
The fundamental attribution error is less likely
in collectivist cultures.
Studies have shown more conformity
in collectivist cultures.
According to _________ theory, prejudice may result, at least in part, from the need to increase one’s own self-esteem by looking down on others.
social identity
Lapier’s study
he travelled with a Chinese man and woman for 2 years. He disappeared for interactions, and only once was someone discriminatory. He contacted the establishments later and asked if they would serve Chinese, and 92% said no. Attitudes didn’t match behavior.
Self-presentation
The act of expressing oneself and behaving in ways designed to create a favorable impression or an impression that corresponds to one’s ideals
AB problem
The problem of inconsistency between attitudes (A) and behaviors (B)
Halo/Horns effect
Assuming positive/negative traits based on levels of attractiveness.
The fundamental attribution error (FAE)
We have an extreme tendency to make dispositional judgements (Castro Essays, friendly/unfriendly student)
Defensive attribution
The tendency to blame victims for their misfortune, so that one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way.
self-serving bias
The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting blame for failures on external factors.
Social Identity
an individual’s sense of him/herself based on group membershi
Social Comparison
Evaluating one’s abilities and opinions by comparing oneself with others.
Counterfactuals
Imagining alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened, but didn’t. Affects measures of satisfactions (ex: bronze medalists happier than silver medalists).
Forbidden Fruit
The forbidding message that causes people to want that thing more. The more powerful the source, the more powerful the drive.
self-fulfilling prophecy
a belief that leads to its own fulfillment.
matching hypothesis
we look for mates with with similar attractiveness
Attitude alignment
attraction causes similarity as couples who stay together move closer together
Romantic Ideals
Idealizing partners, and focus on virtue, particularly in the beginning of a relationship.
aggression
behavior intended to hurt or destroy another person linked to the amygdala, limbic system, testosterone, and serotonin. aggression actually causes less aggression, and media causes more.
Zimbardo Study
prisoner and guard study at stanford.
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