final for history
Martin Luther King, Jr. founded the ____________ to obtain civil rights for African Americans.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
n Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, the Supreme Court ruled that school segregation
violated the 14th Amendment by creating feelings of inferiority and inequality.
President Eisenhower’s approach to desegregation was to
work behind the scenes to support the movement.
People’s attitude toward organized religion in the 1950s was
incredibly positive and religious affiliation boomed.
The economic abundance of the 1950s
did not benefit the steel industry and agriculture as much as other industries.
What was the initial goal of the Montgomery bus boycott?
to create a semi-segregated seating arrangement on a first-come, first-served basis
Which section of the nation benefitted the most from the economic boom of the 1950s?
the Sunbelt states
The “beats” were
writers and poets who rebelled against materialistic 1950s values.
The new American suburbs of the 1950s
showed a surprising occupational diversity among inhabitants.
y 1960, what percentage of black children in the Deep South were attending schools with whites?
less than 1%
he Truman administration failed to pass any civil rights legislation becaus
southern politicians managed to block the legislation
As a result of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka,
the slow process of desegregating schools began.
What was the first focus of NAACP efforts to end segregation practices?
What was the dominant social theme of 1950s America?
Which of the following famous men had the greatest influence on the philosophy of Martin Luther King, Jr?
Why did Eisenhower send 1,000 paratroopers to Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957?
to ensure that black students could attend a desegregated school
What was Dr. Benjamin Spock’s 1946 bestselling book about?
infant and child care
What effect did postwar life have on women in American society?
Many women who had joined the workforce during the war returned to the home to assume the more traditional roles of wife and mother.
How did the drive-in culture of the 1950s change the way America shopped?
Shopping centers and malls were built all over the country.
An immediate problem for rapidly growing suburban communities was providing adequate
In the 1950s, Americans experienced a contradiction in
denouncing the Soviet Union for human rights violations while discriminating against African Americans
Who inspired the Montgomery bus boycott?
Martin Luther King, Jr.’s philosophy advocated
nonviolent, passive resistance to unjust laws.
How did the Deep South respond to court-ordered desegregation?
with massive and widespread resistance.
How did political activism for African American rights change from the 1950s to the early 1960s?
Direct, peaceful confrontation replaced reliance on court action.
The first president to attempt seriously to alter the historic pattern of racial discrimination in the United States was
The 1950s in America were characterized by
a new affluence and a thriving economy.
By 1960, America’s gross national product was ________ the 1940 GNP.
more than double
Which was NOT an important stimulus to American economic growth in the late 1940s and early 1950s?
direct government aid to industrial development
The Montgomery bus boycott
led to the emergence of Martin Luther King, Jr. as a black civil rights leader.
Which was critical to life in the suburbs?
What group was rigidly excluded from all three Levittowns?
What kind of programming became popular after television stations abandoned live dramatic programs?
Who were the Little Rock Nine?
black students at a recently desegregated high school in Little Rock, Arkansas
Why was Rosa Parks arrested in 1955?
She refused to give up her seat on a city bus to a white man.
What organization was formed in 1960 as a result of “sit-in” demonstrations?
the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
The term “baby boom” refers to a significant increase in
the American birth rate.
The most significant social trend in postwar America was
the flight to the suburbs.
What was the driving force for social change that gained civil rights for African Americans?
African American activism
Who invented the concept of the mass construction of suburban homes?
What effect did memories of the Great Depression have on Americans in the 1950s?
Many Americans became almost desperately obsessed with gathering material goods.
Who led the Montgomery bus boycott?
Martin Luther King, Jr.
During the Truman administration,
an order for desegregation of the armed forces was issued.
Why did some people criticize American suburban life?
They disliked the conformity and uniformity of suburban life.
What was a drawback of suburban life for the family?
Many people had only infrequent contact with extended family members.
hat artistic movement is associated with the “beats”?
What event prompted a massive wave of “sit-ins” across the country?
Three African American college students refused to leave a lunch counter after being denied service.
Why did the government increase federal funding for science education in 1957?
It was responding to the Soviet Union’s launch of Sputnik.
By 1960, the most racially integrated institution in American society was
the armed forces.
What change in labor practice came about in the postwar era?
Most people started working less than 40 hours each week.
Start of section 2 What is one reason why the Gulf of Tonkin affair was such a costly victory for Johnson?
When the war started in earnest, Johnson was vulnerable to the charge of deliberately misleading Congress.
John F. Kennedy’s domestic program was known as the
In his healthcare program, President Lyndon Johnson secured
the Medicare program for the elderly.
What was the 1961 freedom ride?
a protest in which a biracial group tested the desegregation laws on public transportation
In part, Lyndon Johnson wanted the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to demonstrate the American commitment to
defending South Vietnam.
Which of the following was NOT a consequence of the Cuban Missile Crisis?
the end of the U.S.-Soviet arms race
The turning point of the Vietnam War which convinced U.S. leaders that the war would end in a stalemate was the
When Johnson became president after the assassination of Kennedy in 1963, he focused first on
passing JFK’s tax cuts and civil rights bill.
n Vietnam, American military strategists counted heavily on
superior American firepower, especially airstrikes.
How did African American activism affect social change for other ethnicities?
Other ethnic groups were inspired by African American activism and launched their own protests.
What caused the Gulf of Tonkin affair?
American support for covert operations in Vietnam led North Vietnam to attack a U.S. ship.
Lyndon Johnson’s political downfall resulted primarily from
his pursuit of the Vietnam War.
Lyndon Johnson’s reform program was called the
What did President Kennedy do to help South Vietnam in 1961?
He sent money and advisers.
What were Johnson’s feelings about committing the United States to the war in Vietnam?
He worried about the consequences of either withdrawal or invasion so he committed to a large-scale but limited military intervention.
organized California grape and lettuce workers to strike for higher wages.
When President Johnson managed to get Congress to pass Kennedy’s proposed tax cut in 1964, the result was
a sustained economic boom.
n 1965, President Lyndon Johnson sent American soldiers to ________ in order to prevent a communist takeover there.
the Domican Repulic
What was one of Lyndon Johnson’s greatest assets in the White House?
his ability to persuade Congress
John F. Kennedy played down civil rights legislation because he
feared the possibility of alienating southern Democrats.
n the spring of 1968, students seized five buildings at ___________ for eight days before police regained control.
The most prominent student protest organization was the
Students for a Democratic Society.
Why did Kennedy authorize a covert mission in which 1,400 Cuban exiles invaded Cuba?
to topple the regime of Fidel Castro
How was the Cuban Missile Crisis resolved?
Russia would remove its nuclear missiles from Cuba in exchange for America’s promise not to invade Cuba.
Which was a difference between John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson?
Kennedy was a better public speaker than Johnson.
How was participation in the Vietnam War most connected to socioeconomic class?
Wealthy young men were more likely to be in college and thus could avoid the draft.
The Cuban Missile Crisis was a confrontation that came very close to being a nuclear conflict between which two countries?
the United States and Russia
How did the civil rights movement change in the mid- to late sixties?
It became more militant and considered violence to force social change.
What was Kennedy’s top priority when he assumed the office of the presidency?
What finally caused Kennedy to support racial justice openly?
Authorities attacked children in a segregation protest in Birmingham, Alabama.
Nixon’s election signaled a public reaction against the
growth of the federal government.
Who wrote the 1963 book The Feminine Mystique?
Why did the United States become involved in the conflict between North and South Vietnam in 1961?
to stop the spread of communism from North Vietnam to South Vietnam
Which individual was an African American appointed to a prominent post in the federal government during the Kennedy administration?
Which statement best describes the social change that American women experienced from the 1920s to the 1960s?
In the 1960s, there were actually fewer women enrolled in college and professional schools than there were in the 1920s.
What effect did the Vietnam War have on future U.S. foreign policy?
It caused America to abandon its containment policies.
Kennedy’s failed 1961 covert operation to overthrow Cuba’s Fidel Castro is called
the Bay of Pigs.
Lyndon Johnson’s main theme in the presidential election of 1964 was
ending poverty in America.
What was the main issue that American college students protested during the sixties?
the Vietnam War
Who put the most pressure on Kennedy to openly support racial justice?
Martin Luther King, Jr.
How did Kennedy secure the African American vote in the 1960 presidential election?
He supported the release of Martin Luther King, Jr. from jail.
American bombing of North Vietnam
was largely ineffective.
Lyndon Johnson must bear great responsibility for the American problems in the Vietnam War because he
failed to confront the American people with the stark reality of the war.
What was one major factor that helped Kennedy defeat Nixon in the 1960 presidential election?
Kennedy’s performance in the first televised presidential debate.
Which statement about the Voting Rights Act of 1965 is correct?
It led to a dramatic increase in African American voting registration in the South.
The foreign policy of Lyndon Johnson
was, in many respects, simply a continuation of Kennedy’s policies.
Which 1968 presidential candidate cut deeply into Democratic candidate Hubert Humphrey’s voter base by running on the American Independent Party ticket?
George C. Wallace
What was the touchstone of the new counterculture of the sixties?
Who advocated “black power” as the leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee in the 1960s?
Which statement about Johnson’s war on poverty is correct?
It emphasized self-help and brought almost 10 million people out of poverty.
Start of section 3 The antimissile system based on the use of lasers and particle beams to destroy incoming missiles from outer space was called
With the Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF), both the Soviet Union and the United States agreed to
remove and destroy all intermediate-range missiles in Europe.
What caused President Reagan’s change of policy towards the Soviet Union in his second term?
New Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev was interested in making peace with the United States.
The Camp David Accords provided a framework for peace negotiations between
Israel and Egypt.
The results of President Reagan’s economic policies were
mixed-there were record federal deficits but the economy overall improved.
Why did the Nixon administration decide to resume relations with China?
The United States believed it would force better relations with the Soviet Union.
How did President Clinton change the experience of gays and lesbians in the military?
He established the “Don’t ask, don’t tell” policy.
In 1979, revolutionaries in ________ took U.S. diplomats hostage.
Why did Congress refuse Reagan’s request for money and authority for further intervention in Nicaragua?
They feared repeating the mistakes of the Vietnam War.
The international oil organization most responsible for raising petroleum prices in the 1970s was
The most encouraging economic development for women in the late twentieth century was that
the number of female business owners increased greatly.
President Gerald Ford’s brief “honeymoon” with the American public ended when he
granted disgraced President Richard Nixon a full pardon.
The Boland Amendment
prohibited American military aid to overthrow the Nicaraguan government.
How did Reagan challenge the liberal premises of the New Deal?
He asserted that the private sector should solve America’s problems rather than the federal government.
Who served as Nixon’s national security advisor during his first term?
The court decision in Roe v. Wade guaranteed women’s right to
obtain an abortion.
Which statement best characterizes Reagan’s two terms as governor of California?
He was flexible instead of trying to implement all of his conservative beliefs.
How did Reagan’s approach to the conflict in Nicaragua differ from Carter’s?
Carter gave economic aid to the Sandinista government; Reagan cut off that economic aid.
Which component was NOT part of Nixon’s plan to end the war in Vietnam?
increased military spending
A central tenet of Reagan’s approach to foreign policy at the beginning of his presidency was the belief that
the Soviet Union was a deadly enemy that threatened the United States.
What did the United States do in the early 1980s that caused the Soviet Union to break off disarmament negotiations in Geneva?
It placed missiles in Europe within striking distance of the Soviet Union.
What executive order did President Ford give to the CIA in 1975?
He outlawed assassinations as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy.
What was the Moral Majority?
a religious fundamentalist group
Why did militants take 53 Americans prisoner from the U.S. embassy in Tehran in 1979?
Carter had allowed the exiled shah to seek medical treatment in the United States.
The birth of the gay liberation movement was
the Stonewall Riots
Which group overwhelmingly supported Carter in the 1980 presidential election?
How did the American family unit change after 1970?
The number of births to women over age 30 increased.
Nixon’s program to improve relations with the Soviet Union was known as
he turmoil of the 1960s and the economic and political troubles of the 1970s
turned America to conservatism.
What inspired the infamous protests at Kent State during which four students were killed?
the U.S. invasion of Cambodia
The Iran-Contra affair was
a scandal in which the government planned to sell weapons to Iran in order to finance exiles fighting in Nicaragua.
The greatest economic challenge faced by the Nixon administration involved
a dramatic increase in international oil prices.
The first person to become president without being elected president or vice president was
The SALT treaties involved
reduction of U.S. and Soviet offensive ballistic missiles.
What was most important about the SALT I agreements?
They were a symbolic first step in a peaceful resolution of the tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union
President Reagan’s tax compromise with Congress called for an income tax cut of
5 percent the first year and 10 percent for the second and third years.
How did Nixon feel about anti-war protestors?
He had very little sympathy for them.
What is one neoconservative criticism of liberals?
Liberals are too willing to sacrifice high domestic standards to achieve social equality.
How was the Watergate Scandal similar to the Iran-Contra affair?
They both involved secret, illegal government actions that tarnished the President’s reputation.
hile the United States was home to only 6 percent of the world’s population, it was responsible for _______ percent of the world’s energy consumption.
What was the Watergate Scandal?
President Nixon’s attempts to hide his involvement in a break-in at the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee
What do supply-side economists believe?
that tax cuts will lead to an economic boom
How did President Reagan’s policies toward the Soviet Union change in his second term?
He was more willing to cooperate with the Soviet Union in his second term.
How did Carter try to redeem himself after his unsuccessful presidency?
He tried to pin responsibility on the public and his dismissed cabinet members
How does the Watergate Scandal compare to previous presidential scandals?
Unlike previous presidential scandals, Watergate was about power rather than money.
Why did Saudi Arabia cut off oil shipments to the United States in 1973?
The United States had sent emergency aid to Israel during the October War.
What was the main focus of the Nixon presidency?
The most serious consequence of the 1970s oil shock for America was
Who was the first woman to be appointed to the United States Supreme Court?
Sandra Day O’Connor
Why did some working class women oppose the Equal Rights Amendment?
They worried about losing the protections of state laws designed to help women
Start of section 4How did most Americans feel about the future by 2010?
About half of Americans thought that the country’s best days were over.
What did the Bush administration insist Iraq was hiding in 2002?
weapons of mass destruction
What campaign pledge did President George H. W. Bush have to break in 1990?
his pledge not to raise taxes
What did the Obama administration accomplish that Democratic presidents since Harry Truman had wanted to achieve?
a comprehensive medical insurance program for all Americans
How did George H. W. Bush respond to the 1989 repression of protestors in Tiananmen Square?
He denounced the violence but maintained a working relationship with China.
What issue became especially controversial after Chief Justice William Rehnquist died and Associate Justice Sandra Day O’Connor retired?
The outcome of the 2000 presidential election hung on legal battles over the vote count in
The U.S. and allied military campaign against Iraq in 1991 was known as Operation
How did Congress respond to concerns about the economic effects of undocumented workers in 1986?
It penalized employers who hired undocumented workers
What issue made science education controversial in the early twenty-first century?
demands to teach intelligent design instead of evolution
What event revealed to the nation that poverty in America was not colorblind?
The first move in the war on terror was the overthrow of a radical Islamist regime in
Bill Clinton was impeached for
perjury and obstruction of justice.
What was President George W. Bush’s first order of business after being elected?
a large tax cut
The first crisis of the post-Cold War era occurred when
Iraq invaded Kuwait.
What was the purpose of the “No Child Left Behind” measure?
It mandated state testing to evaluate student performance in reading and math.
How did the Democratic Party change its tactics in the early 1990s and regain the White House?
It became more moderate and began tailoring programs to the middle class.
How did the American public react to Kenneth Star’s report outlining the possible impeachment charges against Clinton?
The public condemned Starr for revealing such graphic and intimate details of sexual practices on the news.
How did the 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States change American foreign policy?
The United States took on the role of global police officer.
How did life improve for African Americans over the last few decades of the twentieth century and the first decade of the twenty-first century?
The average educational level of African Americans increased.
How was George W. Bush’s economic policy different from Clinton’s?
Clinton favored eliminating the deficit, while Bush favored tax reduction.
What is NAFTA?
a free trade agreement between the United States, Mexico, and Canada
Affirmative action policies are designed to
ensure greater participation by minorities.
Who was responsible for the liberation of Eastern Europe from repressive governments?
What caused a riot in South Central Los Angeles in which 53 people were killed?
The court’s acquittal of the police officers who beat Rodney King.
In what way was Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait influenced by the end of the Cold War?
The Soviet Union was no longer a superpower that could influence Saddam Hussein.
How did President Obama affect the experience of gays and lesbians in the military?
He repealed the “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy.
How was the age of the American population related to the economy?
Health care costs rose alarmingly as the American population aged.
Which countries did President George W. Bush call the “axis of evil” in 2002?
Iraq, Iran, and North Korea
Which statement best describes the 2004 presidential election?
It was especially bitter and spiteful as each party blamed and criticized the other.
People living in American urban centers
had more education than people in rural areas.
How did the dismal economy affect the 2008 presidential race?
It helped Obama gain ground during the campaign.
Bush’s 2003 decision to go to war in Iraq initially seemed
wise because the military quickly succeeded in taking Baghdad.
How did the September 11, 2001, attacks affect the U.S. economy?
The airline industry was devastated as people were afraid to fly.
In 1989, popular demonstrations calling for democratic reform were violently suppressed in
How did Ralph Nader’s candidacy in the 2000 presidential election affect the race?
Gore moved further to the left, leaving more room for Bush among independents.
How did the 2000 presidential election break from historical trends?
The state of the economy did not determine the outcome of the election.
Why was George H. W. Bush’s plan to bring down the federal budget deficit unsuccessful?
His plan coincided with the beginning of a recession.
By 2002, ________ had become the nation’s largest ethnic minority.
In what way did the 2000 presidential election reveal a division in American life?
The poor voted for Gore while the rich voted for Bush.
The largest single group of Asian Americans was of __________ descent.
Why did the George H. W. Bush administration feel so much pressure after Iraq invaded Kuwait?
The United States was the sole remaining superpower following the Cold War.
The only significant piece of social legislation enacted in the first Bush administration was the
Americans with Disabilities Act.
What was President George H. W. Bush’s primary focus during his presidency?
What did immigrants from the four major Hispanic groups have in common?
They tended to be relatively young.
Which of the following was NOT a component of the Contract with America?
universal health care coverage
Which statement most accurately compares Al Gore and George W. Bush?
Gore seemed aloof but had experience, while Bush was personable but inexperienced.
The terrorist attacks on the United States led the George W. Bush administration to initiate a new global strategy known to its critics as
Which area of the United States experienced dramatic growth from the 1970s to the 1990s?
What was the central issue of the 2004 presidential election?
the war in Iraq