ps 204

The modern concepts of revolution and terrorism can be first traced back to which important modern event?
french revolution
Nihilism is in large part a belief that all institutions and values:
are essentially meaningless
Some warn that too much centralized power to fight terrorism could lead to:
a surveillance state
In which of the following ways does a coup d’état differ from a revolution?
Elites are the agent of change
States most often engage in state-sponsored terrorism as a means of:
influencing foreign policy
Political violence is defined as:
violence outside of state control that is politically motivated
Guerrilla war can be defined as:
the use of violence by nonstate actors who accept the traditional rules of war and target the state in order to achieve a political goal
Terrorism can be defined as:
the use of violence by nonstate actors against civilians in order to achieve a political goal
In which of the following ways do institutional explanations of political violence differ from ideational explanations?
They tend to be more particularistic
Studies of the relationship between economic conditions and terrorism find that:
there is not a strong correlation between economic deprivation and terrorism
Individual-focused studies of terrorism, noting in part the emphasis on community and purity of cause, have drawn comparisons between terrorist groups and:
religious cults
It has been argued that the 1979 Iranian Revolution and the 2011 Egyptian Revolution are examples of which model of revolution?
relative deprivation model
Which of the following could be categorized as an individual explanation for political violence?
humiliation
The statement “one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter”:
runs against a core purpose of political science, which is to define terms objectively
In the third phase of their evolution, such as in the work of Theda Skocpol, studies of revolutions have:
shifted their emphasis from the public to the state
War crimes and human rights abuses can be defined as:
the use of violence by states against civilians in order to achieve a political goal
Once considered relatively unusual, military rule became much more common over the past 50 years, particularly in:
Africa and Latin America
A system wherein authoritarian regimes sanction a limited number of organizations to represent the public (and restrict unsanctioned ones) is known as:
corporatism
Which of the following characteristics is an illiberal regime likely to have in common with a democratic one?
The executive, legislature, and judiciary are established and have their respective arenas of authority
Communist countries are examples of which form of authoritarianism?
one-party rule
Countries that appear to have many of the trappings of democracy but restrict the democratic process to a great degree are known as:
illiberal or hybrid regimes
In which of the following ways does clientelism differ from corporatism?
Clientelism relies on individual patronage rather than on large organizations
As a political system, totalitarianism is:
rare
A nondemocratic regime in which holy texts or religious law form the foundation for its rule would be known as:
a theocracy
When a system in which individuals outside an organization are brought into a beneficial relationship with it, making them dependent on the regime for certain rewards, it is known as:
co-optation
Which of the following represents a challenge to the behavioral revolution’s assertion about the relationship between nondemocratic rule and modernization?
Modernization’s disruptive process can lead to nondemocratic rule
Bureaucratic authoritarianism often justifies military rule by asserting that:
only technocratic leadership can rise above “irrational” politics
Which of the following best characterizes the “Asian values” argument?
Asia has cultural and religious traditions that encourage conformity and obedience, making it less receptive to democracy
Which of the following is among the characteristics that have led some to consider Russia to be a bureaucratic authoritarian regime?
The head of government and top rulers came into their positions from the military or security services
Which of the following statements about populism is accurate?
Populist movements are often led by a charismatic leader
Which term refers to a military seizure of the government?
coup d’état
Which of the following is the best example of a country that could be described as a theocracy?
Iran
What is the chief advantage that a categorization using “developed,” “communist/postcommunist,” and “developing” might have over the “three worlds” model?
It allows for the possibility that a country might transform and take on a new designation.
In terms of political structure and public participation, in which of the following ways are the United States and France similar?
They rely on some form of single-member-district plurality or majority to elect their legislatures.
The process by which states pool their sovereignty, surrendering some individual powers in exchange for some political, social, or economic benefits, is known as:
integration
Which of the following is a core component of the European Union?
the European Parliament
Which of the following best characterizes the role of freedom across developed democracies?
There are significant differences in the definitions and applications of civil rights and liberties
Which of the following best describes the nature of integration as it has developed in the European Union?
It grew to its present state through a series of incremental agreements negotiated over several decades, including as recently as the 2000s
Which of the following statements about European Union expansion in recent decades is accurate?
Expansion has been accompanied by immigration westward and company relocation eastward.
The European Union was created as a response to the:
destruction caused by World War II.
Which of the following statements about developed democracies is accurate?
A relatively small agricultural sector is common among developed democracies.
An economy based primarily on the service sector is known as:
postindustrial.
Germany, Canada, and the United States are comparable in ________ but very different in ________.
level of economic development; their Gini index measure of inequality
Many now speak of the European Union as a body that has become:
supranational.
Which of the following is the best-known example of the process of integration?
the formation of the European Union
Which of the following is currently a major source of contention in the European Union?
future membership for Turkey
In which of the following countries is increased multiculturalism most likely to be a source of explosive fear and negative reaction?
France
Many suggest that developed democracies are undergoing significant social, political, and economic changes, becoming:
postmodern.
The process by which powers are sent down to local levels of government is known as:
devolution.
Which of the following describes a major contradiction faced by developed democracies in their attempts to maintain the welfare state?
The problem could be mitigated by accepting more immigrants, but that creates a new problem because citizens are largely unwilling to extend benefits to immigrants.
Postindustrialism most threatens the economic security of:
the less educated
During the Cold War, the developed democracies were commonly referred to by scholars as the:
first world
Skepticism toward technological innovation characterizes ________ views.
postmodern
Which of the following describes a likely characteristic of postindustrial societies?
more devolution of economic power
Japan provides a uniquely extreme example of which of the following issues in the transition of developed democracies?
population aging and homogeneity that threatens the welfare state
The viability of the welfare state is most challenged by:
increasingly old populations
A small province in a large European country feels that its ethnic and cultural heritage differs substantially from that of the country to which it belongs. The executive petitions the central government to allow the province to gain control over the design and writing of textbooks that are administered in its schools, a power formally held by the central ministry of education. The request is granted. This process would be categorized as:
devolution.
The “cabinet” of the Communist Party as developed in the Soviet Union is generally known as the:
Politburo
The ________ is the name Marx chose for the system of economic production, including the level of technology (the “means of production”).
base
The term used to describe Marx’s conception of historical change is:
dialectical materialism
Under communism, ethnicity and nationalism were:
suppressed
Which of the following statements about the privatization and marketization of countries transitioning from communism is accurate?
Inflation and hyperinflation were fears of those that advocated a gradual approach to marketization
Which of the following represented the chief executive position in a communist country based on the Soviet model?
general secretary
Politically sensitive or influential jobs in the state, reserved for people approved by the Communist Party as developed in the Soviet Union, are known as:
nomenklatura.
Which of the following is an accurate description of some component of communist government in the Soviet Union?
Some unions were allowed to operate outside of the state, though they were linked to the Communist Party.
The bourgeoisie are the:
property-owning middle class
Postcommunist economic reform has been most successful in:
Eastern Europe and the Baltics.
In which of the following ways has China’s transition from the communist model differed from that of Russia?
It has sought economic change with little or no political change.
One of the challenges in putting Marx’s ideas into practice has been that:
he left no specific outline for how communism would be built.
Which of the following statements about communism in China under Mao is accurate?
Mao sought to destroy the power of the party-state in order to expand the Communist regime.
For most of his career, Marx generally argued that communist revolution was most likely in:
countries where capitalism was most advanced
How did Marxist theory change the lives of women in most communist countries?
Women were given greatly expanding workforce and educational opportunities.
Which of the following statements about religions and their contribution to new identities around the world is accurate?
The Chinese government has tried to battle religious growth by promoting Confucian ideals and practices.
For Marxists, socialism represents:
a transitional phase before communism
Which of the following statements about gender and LGBT rights and equality in former communist or eastern European countries is accurate?
While some Central European states allow for same-sex partnerships, discrimination against the LGBT community has actually grown in Russia and Central Asia
The individual primarily associated with articulating the political theory of communism is:
Karl Marx.
Which of the following has served as a major source of attraction for followers of communism?
the promise of economic equality
In which of the following ways did Lenin’s beliefs about communism differ from those of Marx?
He argued that revolutions could take place in less advanced countries.
Marx’s name for all human institutions, including religion, the state, politics, and gender, is the:
superstructure.
How have current governments in Russia and China responded to growing nationalism in their countries?
They have promoted nationalism as a means of maintaining legitimacy.
In which of the following ways do postcommunist success stories like Hungary, Poland, and the Czech Republic differ from countries with less successful records like Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia, and Serbia?
They have a greater precommunist history of healthy civil society.
Gorbachev’s perestroika was concerned with:
institutional economic and political reforms
The untaxed, unregulated, and unprotected sector of the economy is known as the ________ economy.
informal
Countries that are experiencing weak economic and political development are known as ________ countries.
lower income
Countries that are experiencing rapid economic growth and democratization are generally known as ________ countries.
middle income
Which of the following best describes modernization under imperialism in most colonial states?
incomplete transition between Western and traditional institutions
Import substitution is most closely related to which of the following political-economic systems?
mercantilism
Why might the commonality of authoritarian regimes in the developing world fail to suggest high levels of autonomy, even though on the surface it appears that this should be the case?
These regimes often lose their independence through corruption to groups that exploit them as a resource.
The concept of a “hothouse economy” is associated with:
import substitution.
Which of the following might be a Washington Consensus policy recommendation to a less developed country that would be opposed by a supporter of import substitution policy?
reducing state power
A system wherein a state extends its power in order to directly control territory, resources, and people beyond its borders is known as:
imperialism.
Which of the following best describes social identities in places under imperial control?
Neither strong national nor strong, specific ethnic identities were present before imperialism.
Which postcolonial region currently suffers the lowest rankings on the Human Development Index?
Africa
Policies supported by the IMF and World Bank to increase economic liberalization in less-developed countries are often referred to as the:
Washington Consensus
Which of the following can be said about the effects of imperialism on gender roles?
It is difficult to generalize about the effects on gender roles, but in many countries imperialism likely made gender roles more fixed.
Which of the following statements about the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals (MDG) program is accurate?
Lack of proper, comprehensive data collection has left wide disagreement over whether or not the program has been a success.
One recent innovation to help alleviate poverty in poorer countries through small loans to small businesses is known as:
microcredit.
The borders of most current African states were drawn by colonial powers according to:
longitude and latitude
Many countries in Asia discarded import substitution and opted for a form of economic development after World War II known as:
export-oriented industrialization
Which of the following was the initial, primary cause of lack of government capacity in postcolonial countries?
the absence of a professional bureaucracy
A small country has applied for membership in an economic union. Before membership is granted, the ruling body of the union requires that the applicant state reduce its budget deficit to a specific percentage of GDP. This type of arrangement could be classified as:
conditionality.
One of the major criticisms of microfinance or microcredit is that:
the loans do not help grow businesses that can hire employees.
South Korea is among the Asian countries that pursued an export-oriented strategy known as:
the product life cycle
Some observers of less-developed countries use the term ________ to describe the unequal economic relationship between those countries and advanced democracies in the modern postcolonial era.
“neocolonialism”
Which of the following is a component of import substitution, an economic strategy followed by many developing countries in the post-World War II era?
poor enforcement of intellectual property rights
In comparing the development of postcolonial countries, which of the following pairs of factors have shown strong correlation with each other?
abundant natural resources and weak economic development
Organized life outside of the state that is often seen as critical to democracy and political stability is known as:
civil society.
Which of the followings statements about the extent of globalization is accurate?
In 2013, nearly a quarter of a billion people moved across international borders.
According to political scientists Robert Keohane and Joseph Nye, what is the relationship between globalization and history?
Globalization is “thick” compared to the international connections of the past.
Which of the following ultimately resulted from the establishment of the Bretton Woods system?
establishment of the World Trade Organization
Which of the following statements about aspects of Bretton Woods and the Washington Consensus is accurate?
A core goal of Bretton Wood was to help manage economic relations between countries, and the Washington Consensus advocated a reduction of states’ control over the market.
According to the 2010-14 World Values Survey, ________ showed less mistrust of nationalities than ________.
respondents over 50; respondents under 29
In which of the following ways does the study of societal globalization differ from that of political globalization?
It focuses on the formation of civil society that stretches beyond borders.
Greenpeace is a good example of:
a nongovernmental organization.
In his work The Economic Consequences of the Peace, the economist John Maynard Keynes describes a period that seems to have many similarities to the current state of globalization. Which of the following is that period?
the period before World War I
One important impact of globalization on the study of politics is that:
it blurs the lines between domestic politics and international relations.
Political globalization has the most potential to lead to:
weakening state autonomy and capacity
Optimists believe that societal globalization, through a process of “creative destruction,” could lead to a form of:
global cosmopolitanism
Rather than a universal process of economic deepening across the globe, much of what we think of as globalization is simply the:
integration of China into the global market.
Call centers and data processing are examples of what is known as:
offshore outsourcing
In what way is the Internet unlike a typical international regime?
It has no norms that lead to a specific goal
In which of the following ways has sovereign authority reasserted itself over the last decade?
censorship of Internet web sites by some states
Critics of globalization speak of the problem of a “democratic deficit,” meaning:
the movement of power toward international organizations may reduce public representation and control.
Globalization is associated with the growing power of a host of nonstate or supra-state entities. What are the three major categories that these entities fall into?
multinational corporations, nongovernmental organizations, intergovernmental organizations
In the process of historical globalization, the late nineteenth century saw the rise of the first:
NGOs and IGOs.
In which of the following ways did the Bretton Woods system differ from the Washington Consensus?
It placed less emphasis on the promotion of international trade
The experiences of the WTO in 1999 and 2008 suggest which of the following?
an increase in antiglobalization activism
The liberalizing view of globalization suggests that it will be a:
mechanism for future prosperity.
Which of the following best describes a major concern of those who believe globalization will be detrimental to social progress?
Globalization will inspire a backlash against cultural exports that will reduce the capacity of MNCs to operate globally.
What aspect of globalization first came into being in the late nineteenth century?
the first NGOs and IGOs
Which of the following statements about the growth (or lack of growth) of globalization is accurate?
Despite predictions to the contrary, global inequality has remained steady or grown slightly over the last three decades.
In which of the following ways are the new violent international actors empowered by globalization similar to IGOs and MNCs, and in which way are they dissimilar?
similar in that they are decentralized; dissimilar in that they hold territory
Comparative politics
is the study and comparison of domestic politics across countries
international relations
examines relations between countries.
Power
is the ability to influence others or impose one’s will on them.
Comparative method
is a way to make comparisons and draw conclusions across case studies
inductive reasoning
using case studies to generate a hypothesis
deductive reasoning
research that works from a hypothesis and tests this with data
multicausality
when variables interconnect and interact to produce particular outcome
selection bias
focusing on an area because of the convenience of travel or knowledge of its language and not others
endogeneity
the difficulty in separating causes and effects
modernization theory
as societies developed they would become capitalist democracies, converging around a set of shared values and characteristics
behavioral revolution
the subject of investigation shifted away from political institutions toward individual political behavior
Legitimacy
defined as the idea that something or someone is recognized by the public as right and proper—grants states the authority and power to act.
traditional legitimacy
built on history and continuity
charismatic legitimacy
built on a foundation of highly institutionalized laws
federalism
where significant powers reside in regional or local authorities
asymmetric federalism
has an uneven distribution of power
unitary states
holds most of their power in a central government
devolution
the “pushing down” of power. From federal government to the state or from the state to the city
capacity
its ability to wield power to carry out policies or actions
autonomy
its ability to wield that power without having to consult the public or another outside body
ethnicity
a set of institutions that bind people together through a common culture
national identity
a set of institutions that bind people with political aspirations
political ideologies
are values help by individuals on the fundamental goals of politics
radicals
argue for dramatic, sometimes revolutionary change of the current political and economic order
liberals
also argue for change, but, unlike radicals they believe change can come within existing political structures
-favor free markets (the principle of laissez-faire) and strong protections of for private property
conservatives
do not see change as necessary and argue that the current systems and structures are working
reactionaries
seek to restore current political and economic structures to previously established ways. While their goals differ, the approaches of radicals and reactionaries are often similar
liberalism
holds that politics should seek to achieve the highest level of freedom for all people
-emphasizes individual freedoms over collective equality and the power of markets over the state
communism
seeks to achieve equality through state control of economic resources
social democracy or socialism
hopes to achieve economic equality, but strives to do so through private ownership and market forces
-emphasizes capitalism; however argue that markets should be checked by the state and that the state should provide more public goods
fascism
rejects freedom and equality, arguing instead for hierarchal divisions between people
anarchy
rejects the notion of government altogether
fundamentalism
is an ideology that seek to unite religion with the state
political economy
the study of how the relationship between politics and economics shapes the balance of freedom and equality
neocorporatism
a economic model that is followed by some social democracies that allows a limited number of business, labor and other social groups to work with the state
mercantilism
focuses economic growth to increase the power of the state
parastatals
partial state ownership of specific industries
Gini index
a mathematical formula that measures inequality and poverty
human development index
measures the overall well-being of a country’s people
economic liberalization
cutting taxes, reducing regulation, privatizing state-owned businesses and public goods and expanding property rights
liberal democracy
a political power exercised either directly or indirectly through participation, competition and liberty
republicanism and separation of powers
(Roman empire)
representation of the public through elected officials and power sharing between institutions
bicameral or unicameral
legislatures with two branches or a single branch
constituencies
electoral boundaries
single-member district
(SMD)
each constituency is allocated one seat in the legislature and the candidate or party who wins the most votes in that district wins the seat
proportional representation
(PR)
use multimember districts (MMD) and seats in the legislature are allocated according to the proportion of votes the party receives
mixed electoral system
a mix of PR and SMD to try and balance the benefits and tradeoffs of these two systems
referendum
where a policy is place on the ballot and voted on by the people
initiative
where the people gather signatures in order to place a policy on the ballot for a vote
nondemocratic regimes
(authoritarianism)
are those controlled by a small group of individuals who exercise power over the state without being constitutionally responsible to the public
totalitarianism
is a form of non democratic rule involving a highly centralized state with a strong ideology that seeks to transform and fuse the institutions of the state, society, and economy
populism
an anti-institutional ideology. It does not guarantee an antidemocratic outcome, but it can destabilize democratic practices and provide a foundation for antidemocratic leaders to come to power
coercion
compelling individuals by threatening harm to their life or livelihood
surveillance
watching the population and punishing those who criticize the state
co-optation
bringing outsiders into a beneficial relationship with the regime
corporatism
the state controls and approaches all social and economic institutions
clientelism
the state provides favors to people who offer support
patrimonialism
the leader, in return for obedience, provides benefits to a small group of supporters
coup d’ état

(military rule)

wrests the power of the government and usually restricts civil liveries and bans political parties
bureaucratic authoritarianism
a regime that asserts that a technocratic leadership forced on objective, rational and technical expertise can solve the problems of a country without public participation
one-party rule
is the situation in which one party monopolizes over with other parties banned or excluded from power
theocracies
meaning that faith is the foundation the political regime and affects nearly all political decisions and institutions
illiberal or hydrid regimes
are those that contain institutions that seem democratic by are not respected or seen by the people as legitimate or effective
politcal violence
is violence outside of state control and is politically motivated
ideational
explanations focus on the effect of political, religious ideas in causing political violence
relative deprivation model
argued that revolution occurred when there was a gap between public expectations and actual conditions in a country
state-sponsored terrorism
occurs when a state directly supports terrorism and as an instrument of foreign policy
guerrilla war
involves violence by non state actors targeting the state
developed democracies
(first world)
are countries with institutional democracy and a high level of economic development and prosperity
modern
that is, secular, technological, bureaucratic, rational, materialistic and placing greater emphasis on individual freedom than on collective equality
postmodern
culture that emphasizes “quality of life” considerations over material gain
integration
blurring the lines between countries by creating common policies, rules and tighter connections
European union (EU)
found in the aftermath of WW2 was the first intergovernmental system
-today it includes 28 members
supranational system
a system where sovereign powers are shared among the members and held by EU institutions over the member states themselves
postindustrialism
economies based, not on the manufacture of tangible goods, but rather on the service sector (finance, real estate, education and health care)
base
the economic system of society, made up of technology and class relations between people
superstructure
institutions like religion, culture and national identity
dialectical materialism
Marc believed that human history moved through a series of phases and that economic conflict lead to revolutions that would move the world from feudalism though capitalist democracy and ultimately a communist utopia
bourgeoisie
the property owning class
proletariat
working class
vanguard of the proletariat
a small revolutionary movement that would seize power on behalf of the people
nomenklatura
positions given by the government to people in exchange for loyalty to the party
politburo
the cabinet
central committee
the legislature
part-state
is a system in which power flows directly from the ruling political party to the state, bypassing government structures
central planning
where the state bureaucracy controlled the type and amount of goods produced
glasnost
openness to public debate
perestroika
actual institutional reform
middle-income
newly industrializing countries (NICs) have shown swift economic development, social stability and greater democratization
lower-income
less-developed countries (LDCs) display weak economic growth and political and social instability
imperialism
is the system whereby a state extends its power to directly control terrify, resources and people beyond its borders
colonialism
involves greater degree of physical occupation of a territory by settlers of the military
neocolonialism
economically, newly industrializing and less-developed countries were still depended upon their former empires
import substitution
restricting imports in favor of locally produced goods, a policy that had little success and was criticized as prone to corruption
export-oriented industrialization
focuses on producing good that could be exported
structural adjustment programs
(Washington Consensus)
dictated by the World Bank and IMF. Policies required the privatization of industries, shifts toward more open markets, and more encouragement of foreign investment;
-these reforms have been controversial and theirs results have been mixed
informal economy
it is not regulated or taxed by the state
microcredit
providing small loans to local people to allow them to start businesses
microfinance
a broader spectrum of services, including credit, savings, insurance and financial transfers
globalization
the process of expanding and intensifying linkages among states, societies, and economies
multinational corporations (MNCs)
are firms that produce and market goods in more than one country
nongovernmental organizations
(NGOs)
are national and international groups, apart from any state, that focus on specific policy goals
intergovernmental organizations
(IGOs)
include groups like the United Nations and the EU and are created by states to focus on certain policies
international regime
defined as the fundamental rules and norms of politics, which make up a set of institutions that empower and contain states and governments
bretton woods system
a post war economic regime (associated with the Washington Census) created to expand economic relations and promote trade liberalization
3 important institutions emerged:
-international monetary fund (IMF)
-general agreements on tariffs and trade (GATT)
-which was later replaced by the world trade organization (WTO)
foreign direct investment
the purchase of assets in a country by a foreign firm
offshore outsourcing
the process by which a firm moves its work to a secondary business in order to lower costs or increase production
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