Psychology Exam#5 Quiz#2

Accepting others’ opinions about reality is to ________ as the desire to gain approval is to ________.
informational social influence;normative social influence
The careers of health care specialists such as pediatricians, neurologists, and dentists most clearly illustrate that culture enables
divsion of labor
Which branch of psychology is most directly concerned with the study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another?
social psychology
The enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through group discussion is called
group polarization
Which of the following comments is most likely to be made in a group characterized by groupthink?
“we all seem to be in basic agreement, so there’s no sense in continuing our discussion of the issue”
In explaining the actions of people we do not know well, we often demonstrate
the fundamental attribution error
Vanna is tempted to shoplift a gold necklace even though she has negative feelings about shoplifting. Vanna is LEAST likely to steal the merchandise if
she easily recalls her negative feelings about shoplifting
Participants in the Milgram obedience studies were ordered to
deliver electric shocks to a learner for giving incorrect answers
Philip Zimbardo devised a simulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This experiment best illustrated the impact of
role playing on attitudes
Opinion change resulting from a thoughtful focus on the content of arguments illustrates
central route persuasion
The preservation of historically creative and useful ideas and practices is a benefit most clearly associated with
culture
Social loafing has been found to be especially noticeable among
men in cultures that value individualism
After she was promoted to a high-level executive position in the large company for which she worked, Jorana developed more pro-business political attitudes. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on attitudes.
role playing
Kentaro hates to wear ties but wears one to his sister’s wedding to avoid his family’s disapproval. Kentaro’s behavior exemplifies the importance of
normative social influence
Attitudes are ________ that guide behavior.
belief-based feelings
Social loafing is MOST likely to occur among
audience members who are asked to applaud after a speaker is introduced
A culture that promotes individualism is most likely to encourage
nonconformity
The fundamental attribution error is likely to lead observers to attribute a stranger’s
act of kindness to a compassionate personality
Which theory best explains why our actions can lead us to modify our attitudes?
cognitive dissonance theory
When in a different culture, people know whether to greet others by shaking hands or kissing each cheek if they are aware of prevailing
norms
Whether a person exercises regularly is best predicted by his or her attitude about
exercise
Which of the following processes most obviously operates in groupthink?
group pollrization
Since 1960, Americans have experienced a(n)
increase in the incidence of depression and a increase in work hours
Hearing someone reading a neutral text in a happy-sounding voice is most likely to trigger
mood contagion
Professor Wang is a member of the faculty committee on academic standards. Other committee members want to begin accepting students with below-average grades. Professor Wang personally disagrees, but he will probably vote in favor of their plan if
the other committee members are all in favor of the plan
In Milgram’s obedience experiments, “teachers” exhibited a somewhat lower level of compliance with an experimenter’s orders when
the experiment was not associated with a prestigious institution like Yale University
Freire did very poorly on his last arithmetic test. The tendency to make the fundamental attribution error might lead his sixth-grade teacher to conclude that Freire did poorly because
he is unmotivated to do well in school
We have a tendency to explain the behavior of strangers we have observed in only one type of situation in terms of ________ and to explain our own behavior in terms of ________.
personality traits;situational constraints
When New York University women were dressed in Ku Klux Klan-style hoods, they demonstrated significantly more aggression. This finding is best explained in terms of
deindividuation
Poverty and unemployment are likely to be explained in terms of personal dispositions by ________ and in terms of situational influences by ________.
political conservatives;political liberals
We tend to feel cheerful around happy people and sad around depressed people. This illustrates
mood linkage
Attribution theory suggests that we tend to attribute others’ behavior either to their
dispositions or their situations
We are most likely to experience cognitive dissonance if we feel
a great sense of responsibility for engaging in behaviors of which we personally disapprove
Those who feel socially pressured sometimes assert their freedom by doing the opposite of what is socially expected. This best illustrates
personal control
Alex thinks smoking is addictive but other players on his hockey team insist that it’s not. Alex is likely to conform to their opinion if
he feels insecure in his role as a new member of the team
In 1942, German reserve police officers obeyed orders to kill some 1500 Jews in the village of Jozefow, Poland. This incident illustrated that people are most likely to be destructively obedient when
they perceive their orders to come from legitimate authority figures
The impact of our actions on our attitudes is best illustrated by
the foot-in-the-door phenomenon
Observing yourself on a video replay is most likely to increase your tendency to attribute your behavior to
personality traits
Fernando’s favorable attitude toward capital punishment began to change when he was asked to offer arguments opposing it in a university debate class. His attitude change is best explained by
cognitive dissonance theory
Individuals who believe that the death penalty should be abolished meet to discuss the issue. Research on group interaction suggests that after discussion the individuals will be
even more convinced that the death penalty should be abolished
On which of the following tasks would the presence of others be MOST likely to lead to improved performance?
county backward from 10 to 1
By enabling like-minded White supremacists to pool their ideas, Internet social networking sites are likely to contribute to
group polarization
The fundamental attribution error is illustrated in our tendency to underestimate the extent to which others’ behavior is influenced by
assigned roles
Adjusting one’s behavior or thinking toward a group standard is called
conformity
Attribution theory was designed to account for
how people explain others’ behavior
A terrorist mentality that becomes increasingly extreme among people who interact without outside moderating influences best illustrates
group polarization
Compared with people from East Asian cultures, those from individualist Western countries are more likely to demonstrate
the fundamental attribution error
Expert pool players were observed to make 71 percent of their shots when alone. When four people watched them, they made 80 percent of their shots. This best illustrates
social facilitation
Since 1960, most Western cultures have changed with remarkable speed. The LEAST likely explanation for these variations involves changes in
the human gene pool
Anton is the only juror to favor acquittal of the defendant in a murder trial. To influence the majority he should
be self-confident and consistent in expressing his viewpoint
Norms are best described as
rules for socially accepted behavior
Unconsciously mimicking those around us is known as
the chameleon effect
Blindfolded university students were observed to pull harder on a rope when they thought they were pulling alone than when they thought three others were pulling with them on the same rope. This best illustrates
social loafing
The impact of the foot-in-the-door phenomenon is most clearly illustrated by
the destructive obedience of participants in the Milgram experiments
The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to
comply with a large request f one has previously complied with a small request
The ill-fated decision of President John F. Kennedy and his advisors to invade Cuba best illustrates the dangers of
groupthink
A person’s behavior is most likely to be consistent with his or her attitudes when
external influences on behavior are minimal
Normative social influence results from peoples’ desire to
gain social approval
To study social facilitation, Norman Triplett observed adolescents while they were
winding fishing reels
Research participants believed that the Asch conformity test involved a study of
visual perception
A business leader who welcomes a variety of opinions from subordinates and invites experts to critique her company’s developing plans is most likely to inhibit
groupthink
According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that
even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction.
After an exciting football game in which the home team loses by one point, angry fans throw bottles and begin to tear up the field. This behavior is best understood in terms of
deindividuation
Comedy
soci
Which of the following is most likely to help us empathize with others?
automatic mimicry
After hearing respected medical authorities lecture about the value of regular exercise, Raul, who has rarely exercised, begins to jog regularly. The change in Raul’s behavior best illustrates the impact of
informational social influence
The Milgram obedience experiments were controversial because the
“teachers” were deceived and frequently subjected to stress
Luella publicly agrees with her seventh-grade classmates that parents should allow 36-year-olds to date. Later that day, she writes in her diary that she actually believes parents should prohibit kids from dating until they are at least 15 years old. Luella’s public conformity to her classmates’ opinion best illustrates the power of
normative social influence
Cultural diversity best illustrates humanity’s
adaptive capacities
Group polarization is most likely to occur in a group in which
individuals share a similar opinion
Most people are likely to be surprised by the results of Milgram’s initial obedience experiment because
correct the “teachers” were more obedient than most people would have predicted.
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Comedy routines that are mildly amusing to people in an uncrowded room seem funnier in a densely packed room. This is best explained in terms of
social facilitation
The fundamental attribution error refers to our tendency to underestimate the impact of ________ and to overestimate the impact of ________ in explaining the behavior of others.
situational influences;personal dispositions
Compared with central route persuasion, peripheral route persuasion tends to
occur more rapidly
The presence of others does not always lead to social facilitation because
arousal inhibits the correct performance of difficult tasks
Aleksis has recently begun to bully and hurt his younger brother. If this behavior continues, it is likely that Aleksis will
develop an increasing dislike for his brother
The discomfort we feel when two thoughts are inconsistent is called
cognitive dissonance
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