Psychology Quizzes 4-6

chromosomes are composed of
A) epigenetic molecules.
B) genomes.
C) neurotransmitters.
D) deoxyribonucleic acid
Identical twins who have separate placentas are somewhat less similar than identical twins who share a placenta. The best illustrates the influence of _______ on development,
A) prenatal environments
B) genetic predispositions
C) temperament
D) serotonin
Two individuals are most likely to differ in personality if they are
A) fraternal twins who were raised together.
B) identical twins who were raised apart.
C) fraternal twins who were raised apart.
D) identical twins who were raised together.
Adopted children are especially likely to have similar ________ if raised in the same
A) temperaments
B) genomes
C) personality traits
D) attitudes
Identifying the interactive influence of specific DNA sequences and child-raising
practices on the development of traits such as anxiety best illustrates the specialty
area known as
A) epigenetics.
B) heritability studies.
C) evolutionary psychology.
D) molecular behavior genetics.
Evolutionary psychology most clearly suggests that human behavioral and biological
similarities arise from our shared
A) neurotransmitter levels.
B) genome.
C) social scripts.
D) sexual overperception bias
Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to attribute the human tendency to
fear spiders and snakes to
A) a universal moral grammar.
B) domestication.
C) social scripts.
D) genetic predispositions
The sexual overperception bias is strongest among ________ who require ________
emotional closeness before intercourse.
A) women; lots of
B) women; little
C) men; lots of
D) men; little
Heterosexual men feel most romantically attracted to women whose waists are
roughly a third narrower than their hips. Evolutionary psychology most clearly
attributes this preference to the fact that this physical characteristic is associated
A) cosmetic surgery.
B) future fertility.
C) food shortages.
D) a fat-free diet
Who are most likely to be criticized for overestimating the impact of genes on malefemale
differences in sexual behavior?
A) behaviorists
B) cross-cultural psychologists
C) evolutionary psychologists
D) social learning theorists
Teens who smoke typically have friends who smoke. To avoid overestimating the
impact of peer pressure on teens’ smoking habits, it would make the most sense to
consider the importance of
A) a selection effect.
B) a pruning process.
C) brain plasticity.
D) culture shock.
The dramatic increase in Americans’ premarital sexual activity over the past halfcentury
best illustrates that sexual behavior is influenced by
A) the male answer syndrome.
B) androgyny.
C) testosterone.
D) norms.
Defining one’s identity in terms of one’s extended family or work group is most
closely associated with
A) culture shock.
B) brain plasticity.
C) extraversion.
D) collectivism
Compared with boys, girls spend
A) more time with friends.
B) less time in clubs.
C) more time watching TV.
D) less time engaging in social relationships
During their teen years, girls become progressively ________ assertive and boys
become progressively ________ domineering.
A) more; more
B) less; less
C) more; less
D) less; more
A single ________ on the ________ chromosome plays a crucial role in the prenatal
development of the testes.
A) gene; X
B) gender schema; X
C) gene; Y
D) gender schema; Y
Traditionally, men were expected to initiate dates and women to select wedding gifts.
This best illustrates aspects of
A) gender identity.
B) collectivism.
C) individualism.
D) gender roles.
People are especially likely to show flexibility in their career choices if they are
A) bisexual.
B) androgynous.
C) asexual.
D) gender-typed.
The belief that boys have shorter hair than girls is a
A) gender role.
B) gender schema.
C) sexual orientation.
D) secondary sex characteristic
Because he believes that crying is a feminine trait, 14-year-old George has difficulty
admitting that a movie makes him tearful. His experience best illustrates the impact
A) sex chromosomes.
B) androgyny.
C) gender schemas.
D) culture shock.
Mark thinks that language development over the life span requires a slow but steady
shaping process. His belief is most directly relevant to the issue of
A) continuity and stages.
B) nature and nurture.
C) behavior and mental processes.
D) stability and change.
Taking certain drugs during pregnancy is likely to expose unborn children to
A) habituation.
B) zygotes.
C) teratogens.
D) reflex responses.
Newborn infants typically prefer their mother’s voice over their father’s voice because
A) their reflexes are naturally triggered by higher-pitched sounds.
B) they rapidly habituate to lower-pitched male voices.
C) they become familiar with their mother’s voice before they are born.
D) they form an emotional attachment to their mother during breast feeding.
The best evidence that newborns possess visual memory capabilities comes from
research on
A) epigenetic effects.
B) infant reflexes.
C) prenatal development.
D) habituation.
By a week after birth, infants are able to distinguish between their mothers’ ________
and that of another nursing mother.
A) face.
B) smell.
C) temperament.
D) tender touche
After Nadia learned that penguins can’t fly, she had to modify her existing concept of
birds. This best illustrates the process of
A) conservation.
B) assimilation.
C) egocentrism.
D) accommodation
During Piaget’s sensorimotor stage, children acquire a
A) theory of mind.
B) concept of conservation.
C) sense of object permanence.
D) capacity for abstract reasoning.
Deficient social interaction and an impaired understanding of others’ emotional states
is most characteristic of
A) autism spectrum disorder.
B) stranger anxiety.
C) infantile amnesia.
D) object permanence.
Marissa resents the burden and constraints of caring for her infant daughter and
frequently ignores her cries for attention. As a consequence, her daughter is most
likely to display signs of
A) egocentrism.
B) object permanence.
C) insecure attachment.
D) self-awareness.
Intense and reactive infants become unusually anxious and aroused when facing new
or strange situations. This best illustrates the impact of
A) object permanence.
B) temperament.
C) egocentrism.
D) a critical period
Compared with the children of authoritarian parents, the children of authoritative
parents are
A) less likely to develop a sense of self-reliance and more likely to demonstrate social competence.
B) more likely to develop a sense of self-reliance and less likely to demonstrate social competence.
C) less likely to develop a sense of self-reliance and less likely to demonstrate social competence.
D) more likely to develop a sense of self-reliance and more likely to demonstrate social competence
The speed of neurotransmission in the frontal lobe increases during adolescence due
to the growth of
A) myelin.
B) social identity.
C) the pituitary gland.
D) the limbic system.
The sexual abuse of a very young child is so emotionally repulsive to most people
that they immediately recognize it as shamefully immoral. This best illustrates that
moral judgments may reflect
A) a rite of passage.
B) delay of gratification.
C) affectively laden intuitions.
D) formal operations
Jarrud thinks he should obey his teachers only if they are carefully watching him.
Kohlberg would suggest that Jarrud demonstrates a(n) ________ morality.
A) conventional
B) unconventional
C) preconventional
D) postconventional
The process of developing a sense of identity during adolescence was highlighted by
A) Erikson’s psychosocial development theory.
B) Piaget’s cognitive development theory.
C) Kohlberg’s moral development theory.
D) the Harlows’ attachment theory
Research on teen social relationships indicates that most adolescents
A) like their parents.
B) frequently include their parents in their Facebook postings.
C) want to avoid emotionally close relationships with peers.
D) experience positive relationships with peers and negative relationships with parents
Menopause involves a decline in
A) testosterone.
B) fertility.
C) maturation.
D) social identity.
Judson is a 70-year-old retired automobile mechanic. In contrast to when he was 20,
he now probably
A) has a greater fear of death.
B) is less susceptible to catching colds.
C) experiences less life satisfaction.
D) would not do as well on a vocabulary test.
The tips of chromosomes that wear down as we age are called
A) genes.
B) antibodies.
C) mitochondria.
D) telomeres.
As adults grow older, they are most likely to show a decline in their ability to
A) nonsense syllables.
B) musical lyrics.
C) famous people.
D) practical skills.
According to Erikson, older adults can most effectively cope with the prospect of
their own death if they have achieved a sense of
A) identity.
B) terminal decline.
C) competence.
D) integrity.
Interpreting new sensory information within the framework of a past memory
A) a just noticeable difference.
B) top-down processing.
C) Weber’s law.
D) sensory adaptation
The size of the difference threshold is greater for heavier objects than for lighter ones.
This best illustrates
A) sensory adaptation.
B) transduction.
C) Weber’s law.
D) subliminal stimulation.
Sensory adaptation helps us to focus our attention on ________ stimuli.
A) familiar
B) subliminal
C) novel
D) intense
After hearing that Bryce had served a prison sentence, Janet began to perceive his
friendly behavior as insincere and manipulative. This best illustrates the impact of
A) subliminal persuasion.
B) prosopagnosia.
C) sensory adaptation.
D) perceptual set.
When holding a gun themselves, people become more likely to perceive another
person as gun-toting rather than as simply holding a phone or wallet. This best
illustrates the impact of
A) subliminal sensation.
B) sensory adaptation.
C) masking stimuli.
D) context effects
The central focal point in the retina where cones are heavily concentrated is known as
A) lens.
B) optic nerve.
C) cornea.
D) fovea.
Which of the following types of cells are located in the brain’s visual cortex?
A) rods and cones
B) bipolar cells
C) cataracts
D) feature detectors
Rules for organizing stimuli into coherent groups were first identified by
A) evolutionary psychologists.
B) behaviorists.
C) Gestalt psychologists.
D) John Locke.
The distance between our right and left eyes functions to provide us with a cue for
depth perception known as
A) proximity.
B) interposition.
C) retinal disparity.
D) linear perspective.
Railroad tracks appear to converge in the distance. This provides a cue for depth
perception known as
A) linear perspective.
B) interposition.
C) proximity.
D) continuity.
Pedro recognized that his son was closer to him than his daughter because his son
partially blocked his view of his daughter. Pedro’s perception was most clearly
influenced by a distance cue known as
A) closure.
B) interposition.
C) relative height.
D) linear perspective.
Grass seen through sunglasses appears equally as green as it does without glasses.
This best illustrates
A) blindsight.
B) sensory interaction.
C) accommodation.
D) color constancy.
A door casts an increasingly trapezoidal image on our retinas as it opens, yet we still
perceive it as rectangular. This illustrates
A) retinal disparity.
B) interposition.
C) shape constancy.
D) linear perspective.
After some practice, Carol was able to read books while holding them upside down.
This best illustrates
A) perceptual adaptation.
B) perceptual constancy.
C) interposition.
D) retinal disparity.
The cochlea is a
A) fluid-filled tube in which sound waves trigger nerve impulses.
B) fluid-filled tube that provides a sense of upright body position.
C) fluid-filled tube that provides a sense of body movement.
D) set of three tiny bones that amplify the vibrations of the eardrum.
Nociceptors initiate the sensation of
A) color.
B) pitch.
C) taste.
D) pain
The taste of umami is a ________ taste.
A) meaty
B) salty
C) bitter
D) sour
The sensory experience of bending one’s knees or raising one’s arms exemplifies
A) the vestibular sense.
B) top-down processing.
C) sensory interaction.
D) kinesthesia.
A drink’s strawberry odor enhances our perception of its sweetness. This best
A) synesthesia.
B) the volley principle.
C) the McGurk effect.
D) sensory interaction.
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