Social Psychology Exam 3

Research concerning automatic prejudices reveals that
automatic processing involves primitive areas of the brain associated with fear.
Ayres’ (1991) research team visited 90 Chicago-area car dealers using a uniform strategy to negotiate the lowest price on an $11,000 car. The results indicated that _______ were given the highest quote.
Black females
Linking good fortune with virtue and misfortune with moral failure enables fortunate people to feel pride and enables unfortunate people to avoid responsibility. This is an example of the _______ phenomenon.
just-world
More lynching of Blacks took place in the old South during years when cotton prices were low, suggesting that prejudice is partly explained by
displaced aggression.
Recent research confirms that prejudiced and stereotyped evaluations
can occur outside of one’s conscious awareness.
A group of people who share a sense of belonging or a feeling of common identity is called a(n)
ingroup
Dismissing outgroup members’ positive behaviors and attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions is known as
group-serving bias.
_______ occurs when groups of individuals who do not fit their stereotype are thought of as “exceptions to the rule.”
Subtyping
Bob is high in social dominance. Which of the following majors is he UNLIKELY to choose in college?
social work
Many disadvantaged youths find pride and identity in gang affiliations, which is their way of
seeking self-esteem.
Which of the following would be an example of the group-serving bias?
Cheryl believes that women are unemployed because of discrimination while men are unemployed because of low motivation.
A state police force has set a height requirement of 5 feet 10 inches for all officers. This requirement is irrelevant to job effectiveness but generally excludes Hispanics, Asians, and women from the force. Such a requirement most clearly reflects
racism and sexism.
Jay believes that all Muslims are violent extremists. This is
stereotype
What connection has been found in experiments exploring self-image and prejudice?
People with low self-image tend to be more prejudiced.
We tend to _______ the competence of those in high status positions and _______ those who agreeably accept a lower status position.
respect; like
The realistic group conflict theory suggests that prejudice arises
when groups compete for scarce resources.
Attitudes contain all of the following EXCEPT
stereotypes
Which of the following is an example of benevolent sexism?
“Women have a superior moral sensibility.”
People vary in how likely they are to expect that others will stereotype them. This is called
stigma consciousness.
Linking _______ with virtue and _______ with moral failure enables fortunate people to feel pride, and enables unfortunate people to avoid responsibility.
good fortune; misfortune
Betty and Tina, both third-graders in the same classroom, are assigned by their teacher to different groups that will compete in a spelling bee. Betty and Tina each believe that their own group is composed of the better spellers. The girls’ beliefs best illustrates
an ingroup bias.
A motivation to have one’s group be dominant over other social groups is what social psychologists call
social dominance orientation.
Assuming that sick people are responsible for their illnesses is an example of the _______ phenomenon.
just-world
We are more prone to ingroup biases when our group is _______ and _______ relative to the outgroup.
small; low in status
A consistent finding concerning Christianity in North America is that, in comparison to non-members, church members show _______ than nonmembers.
more racial prejudice
Although most suspects in cases of incest, child molestation, and sexual abuse are heterosexual males, the local newspaper omits the word “heterosexual” in any related headlines. In contrast, whenever a self-described gay male is arrested for a crime, the headline proclaims “homosexual arrested”. The resulting prejudice that gay males are more likely to commit violent crimes can in part be blamed on
an illusory correlation.
John has just failed a chemistry test. He goes back to his apartment and criticizes his roommate’s choice of music. What term best describes John’s behavior?
displaced aggression
Disadvantaged groups and groups that stress modesty, such as the Chinese, exhibit _______ the group-serving bias.
less of
Who is most likely to support a policy, such as tax cuts for the wealthy, that maintains hierarchies?
a person high in social dominance
People who are overweight
face more discrimination than minority racial groups.
Kayla’s grandparents immigrated from Europe. Kayla holds such a strong belief that her ethnic group is superior to all others that she could accurately be described as being
ethnocentric.
The “we” aspect of our self-concept is what social psychologists call
our social identity.
A preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individual members is called
prejudice.
“Them” – a group that people perceive as being distinctively different or apart from their own group is what social psychologists call a(n)
outgroup.
Kleck and Strenta (1980) had women who falsely believed that they appeared disfigured by theatrical makeup interact with a female partner. Results indicated that women who thought they were disfigured
rated their partners as more tense, distant, and patronizing.
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Categorization can provide useful information about people with minimum effort.
Research on “terror management” has shown that when feeling vulnerable about their own mortality, people are _______ likely to derogate _______ members.
more; outgroup
Which theory is most susceptible to the criticism that it tries to explain aggression by naming it?
instinct theory
Cold, calculated mob murders can be classified as
instrumental aggression.
Research indicates that by the turn of the century, the average boy was playing video games for _______ hours a week.
12
Sigmund Freud argued that aggression ultimately springs from
a primitive death urge.
Berkowitz found that frustrated men delivered more shocks when
guns happened to be in the room.
The perception that one is less well off than others is referred to as
relative deprivation.
In contrast to Freud’s view of aggression, Lorenz argued that aggression is
adaptive rather than self-destructive.
Repeated exposure to fictional scenes of a man overpowering and arousing a woman
distorted people’s perceptions of how women actually respond to sexual coercion.
Jason instigates more and more fights with younger children on the school playground because it gains him the attention and respect of his friends. This most clearly suggests that his aggression is
a learned response.
The blocking of goal-directed behavior is called
frustration.
Which one of the following does NOT predict increased aggression?
the presence of the researcher
Repeated exposure to erotic films that feature quick, uncommitted sex does NOT have which effect?
tends to increase attraction for one’s partner
In view of research on the pain-attack response, Berkowitz (1998) now believes that _______ is the basic trigger of hostile aggression.
aversive stimulation
The pain-attack response has been observed in
many varied species.
In a famous experiment by Albert Bandura and his colleagues, children watched an adult attack a Bobo doll with a mallet. They were then shown some toys that they were forbidden to play with. When they were taken to another room, they
attacked a Bobo doll.
The death penalty does not effectively deter homicide. One reason for this is that most murders are the result of
hostile aggression.
Which of the following is an example of aggression as it is defined in the text?
Luisa urges her classmates not to vote for Marcy for dormitory senator, citing some rumors about Marcy’s social life.
Court (1985) reported that as pornographic materials become more widely available, the rate of reported rapes has generally been found to
increase.
Participants hit a punching bag while either ruminating about the person who angered them or thinking about becoming physically fit. A third group of participants did not hit the punching bag. When given a chance to administer loud blasts of noise to the person who angered them, people in _______ condition(s) felt angrier and were more aggressive.
the punching bag plus rumination
Research indicates that the more sexual content that adolescents view the more likely they are to
experience early intercourse.
Within U.S. subcultures,
cities and areas populated by southerners have much higher White homicide rates than those populated by northerners.
Violent crimes are more likely committed
when the weather is hot.
Frustration grows when
we are completely blocked in attaining our goal.
Which of the following has NOT been linked with aggressive behavior according to your text?
an unexpected request
Of the following, which is the best example of instrumental aggression?
A group of mercenaries, hired to kill the dictator of a small country, arrange to poison him.
Viewing sexually violent movies _______ men to brutality and results in _______ for domestic violence victims.
desensitizes; less sympathy
One way we could reduce aggression is by
training parents how to discipline without violence.
Which one of the following is NOT one of the reasons that lead Buss and Shackelford (1997) to conclude that aggression was adaptive for our distant ancestors?
It encouraged the rise of nations.
Studies of hormonal influences on aggression indicate that
after age 25, testosterone and rates of violent crime decrease together.
As part of therapy, a clinical psychologist encourages her patients to install a punching bag in their homes to release hostility. The therapist apparently believes in
the catharsis hypothesis.
A person kicking the wall after losing a game of poker is an example of
displacement.
“Watching violence on television gives people a harmless opportunity to vent their aggression.” This statement is most clearly consistent with the _______ hypothesis.
catharsis
Instinct theories of aggression would have the most difficulty accounting for
wide variations of aggressiveness from culture to culture.
After arguing with her boyfriend over the telephone, Roberta smashes down the receiver and then throws the phone across the room. This behavior most clearly demonstrates
displacement.
In relation to aggression, the most studied environmental irritant is
heat.
What can we conclude about the relationship between heat and aggression?
The correlations between heat and aggression do not prove a causal relationship.
Eros is to _______ as storge is to _______.
passion; friendship
The relationship between mimicry and rapport is
positive
A motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing, positive interactions is the definition of
the need to belong.
An example of implicit egotism is our tendency to
like the familiar.
In a classic study, Newcomb (1961) found that among students who lived together in a boardinghouse for many weeks, the ones who were most likely to have formed close friendships were those who
had the highest initial agreement on attitudes.
The evolutionary view of physical attractiveness is supported by research showing that men in many cultures worldwide prefer female characteristics that signify
reproductive capacity.
_______ includes strategies, such as flattery, by which people seek to gain another’s favor.
Ingratiation
One factor that will increase the likelihood that a friendship between two people will develop is
how often their paths cross.
Schafer and Keith (1980) conducted surveys of several hundred married couples and found that spouses who perceived inequity in their marriage felt more
distressed and depressed.
Which of the following best expresses the meaning of the physical attractiveness stereotype?
What is beautiful is good.
According to the _______ hypothesis, people are attracted to those whose needs are different in ways that complete each other.
complementarity
Men who have recently been viewing a television show featuring three beautiful women, average women seem _______ attractive, confirming the _______.
less; contrast effect
When people describe themselves in personal ads, women often offer _______ and seek _______.
attractiveness; status
Jen is more in love with Stan today than the day she married him. According to research on the relationship between love and perceived attractiveness,
Jen probably finds Stan to be more attractive today than the day she married him.
Research on the two-factor theory of love supports which of the following conclusions?
“Adrenaline makes the heart grow fonder.”
John Gottman (1994, 1998) noted that healthy marriages were NOT marked by
a lack of conflict.
Anticipatory liking—expecting that someone will be pleasant and compatible—increases the chance of
forming a rewarding relationship.
Ruth is quite attractive (a 4 on a 5-point scale), but Naomi is strikingly attractive (a 5 on a 5-point scale). Research suggests that if Ruth makes $35,000 a year on her job, Naomi will probably make _______ doing the same job.
more money
Who is likely to receive the most responses to his personal ad?
Bill, who emphasizes his income
Bill and Susie’s relationship becomes progressively more intimate as each engages in self-revelation in response to the other’s self-disclosure. Their relationship is marked by the _______ effect.
disclosure reciprocity
Physically attractive people tend to be all of the following EXCEPT
more humorous.
Twelve-month-old Joshua enters an unfamiliar laboratory playroom with his mother. When she leaves, he gets distressed. When she returns, he runs to her and hugs her close. After this intense reunion, he returns to playing. Joshua demonstrates the characteristics of ______ attachment.
secure
Which adult attachment style is marked by individuals being less invested in relationships and more likely to engage in one-night stands?
avoidant
Which of the following proverbs is clearly NOT supported by the research findings?
“Opposites attract.”
At a party, Ellie meets Rob and Blake. The three get involved in a philosophical discussion that lasts through the evening. By the end of the evening, Ellie has discovered that she and Blake see things eye-to-eye, whereas she and Rob see things differently. All else being equal, Ellie will probably like
Blake better.
Rosalinda, who is attractive, very intelligent, and high in social status, marries Jorge, who is also attractive, very intelligent, and high in social status. Their relationship is best understood as an example of
the matching phenomenon.
Which theory suggests that love is a function of physiological arousal along with the label that we give to our arousal?
two-factor theory
In terms of adult attachment styles, _______ individuals seem to be possessive and jealous, while _______ individuals are less invested in relationships and more likely to leave them.
anxious-ambivalent; avoidant
Hatfield gave university women evaluations, affirming the self-esteem of some and wounding others with negative evaluations. Each participant was then asked to evaluate a man who had earlier asked her for a date. Women whose evaluations had been _______ expressed _______ the man.
negative; more liking of
Hatfield defines _______ as a state of intense longing for union with another.
passionate love
Seven in ten infants exhibit _______ attachment.
secure
Even when people have no strong feelings about a product or a candidate, _______ can increase sales or votes.
repetition
Functional distance refers to
how often people’s paths cross.
According to the text, the first step in scientifically studying romantic love is to
define and measure it.
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Sarah
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