Sociology Chapter 6: Societies to Social Networks

Group
people who have something in common and who believe that what they have in common is significant; also called a social group.
Society
people who share a culture and a territory
Hunting and Gathering Society
a human group that depends on hunting and gathering for its survival
Shaman
the healing specialist of a tribe who attempts to control the spirits thought to cause a disease or injury; commonly called a witch doctor.
Pastoral Society
a society based on the pasturing of animals
Horiticultural Society
a society based on cultivating plants by the use of hand tools
Domestication Revolution
the first social revolution, based on domestication of plants and animals, which led to pastoral and horticultural societies.
Agricultural Revolution
the second social revolution, based on the invention of the plow, which led to agricultural societies
Agricultural Society
a society based on large-scale agriculture
Elise Boulding
sociologist who theorized that the change of females being subject to men was because men were in charge of plowing and the cows. Women were left with subsidiary tasks like weeding and carrying water to the fields
Industrial Revolution
the third revolution, occurring when machine powered by fuels replaced animal and human power
Industrial Society
a society based on the use of machines powered by fuels
Herbert Blumer
sociologist who defined industrial society as one in which goods are produced by machines powered by fuels, instead of by brute force of humans or animals.
Postindustrial (information) Society
a society based on information, services, and high technology, rather than on raw materials and manufacturing
Biotech Society
a society whose economy increasingly centers on the application of genetics to produce medicine, food, and materials
Aggregate
individuals who temporarily share the same physical space but who do not see themselves as belonging together.
Category
people who have similar characteristics
Primary Group
a group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation
Secondary Group
compared with a primary group, a larger, relatively temporary, more anonymous, formal, and impersonal group based on some interest or activity
Emile Durkheim
sociologist who said that small groups help prevent anomie (Sense of not belonging) by standing as a buffer in between the individual and the larger society.
Charles Cooley
sociologist who termed groups in which we share close and intimate connections with the members as primary groups. Ex. Family- gives us basic orientations to life
Called primary groups “springs of life.” He meant that family and friends are essential to our emotional well-being.
In-Groups
groups toward which people feel loyalty
Out-Groups
groups toward which people feel antagonism
Robert Merton
sociologist who said that our favoritism creates a double standard because we tend to view traits in our in-groups as virtues but view the same traits in out-groups as vices.
Reference Group
a group whose standards we refer to as we evaluate ourselves
Social Network
the social ties radiating outward from the self that link people together
Clique
a cluster of people within a larger group who choose to interact with one another
Stanley Milgram
psychologist who based on the “small world phenomenon” study, sent letters to “starters” to see if the same letters would reach their “targets” even though the “starters” did not know the “targets” themselves. What they did is send the letters to people who they did know who might know the targets. It took an average of six jumps to reach the correct targets.
Electronic Community
individuals who regularly interact with one another on the Internet and who think of themselves as belonging together
Group Dynamics
the ways in which individuals affect groups and the ways in which groups influence individuals
Small Group
a group small enough for everyone to interact directly with all the other members
Dyad
the smallest possible group, consisting of two persons
Triad
a group of three people
Coalition
the alignment of some members of a group against others
George Simmel
sociologist that noted the affects of dyads, triads, and coalitions.
Leader
someone who influences other people
Lloyd Howells and Selwyn Becker
sociologists who found factors that go into our choice of leaders. Had groups of 5 people who did not know each other sit together at a rectangular table. Three sat on one side and two on the other. After discussing a topic for a certain amount of time, each group chose a leader. In their findings, 70% of leaders emerged from the two people side. The explanation is that we tend to interact more with people facing us than those to the side of us.
Instrumental Leader
an individual who tries to keep the group moving toward its goals; also known as a task-oriented leader
Expressive Leader
an individual who increases harmony and minimizes conflict in a group; also known as a socioemotional leader
Leadership Styles
ways in which people express their leadership
Authoritarian Leader
an individual who leads by giving orders
Democratic Leader
an individual who leads by trying to reach a consensus
Laissez-Faire Leader
and individual who leads by being highly permissive
Ronald Lippitt and Ralph White
social psychologists who carried out a study of these basic leadership styles by making examples of each type with adult leaders and assigned boys to each type of leader. Researchers found that the democratic type of leader worked best.
Dr. Solomon Asch
headed the Asch Experiment in which 3 lines were shown and one additional line stood as a comparison to the others. Questions comparing the lines were given to a group of people of which only one was a real volunteer and the others were “stooges” paid by Dr. Asch to purposely give the wrong answer. He wanted to see if the real volunteer would conform to the groups answers even though the volunteer was aware that their answer was wrong. Turns out that a good amount conformed to the groups answer.
Groupthink
a narrowing of thought by a group of people, leading to the perception that there is only one correct answer, in which to even suggest alternatives becomes a sign of disloyalty.
Irving Janis
sociologist who used groupthink as a term to refer to the tunnel vision that group members sometimes develop. They begin to think alike and that one view point is right and the rest are wrong.
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