Theoretical Criminology

Classical theories do not focus on:
The pathology of criminal behavior
The major difference between metatheory and unit theory is that metatheory discusses process and unit theory discusses structure.
false
Microtheories are the most abstract of all theories.
false
Qualitative theory excludes which of the following factors?
the ability to be tested statistically
Microtheories are similar to which of the following?
Process Theories
Structural theories of crime propose that:
Crime rates will vary as social organization changes
The most common approach to determining a “good” theory is to test it and see how well it fits the research evidence.
True
A theory that is assessed by measurement and testing is referred to as:
Quantitative
Thomas Kuhn purported that new theories that get accepted are the ones that make sense out of conflicting evidence that old theories cannot explain.
True
Which of the following terms applies to a theory that is not really macro or micro, but rather in-between?
Bridging Theory
Which of the following statements about the Classical School is incorrect?
They used science to focus on behavior
Beccaria wrote a small but popular book titled “An Introduction to the Principles and Morals of Legislation.”
False
Beccaria, in his essay Of Crimes and Punishments, made the following point:
People awaiting trial should not be placed in prisons
Which was not an idea that descended from the Classical School?
more use of judicial discretion
According to the text, the vast majority of deterrence research has failed to find any substantial effects from legal sanctions.
True
Which of the following was NOT a major historical influence on the emergence of the Classical philosophy?
the writings of Guerry & Quetelet
An elaborate schedule of punishments designed to take into account a combination of pleasure, pain, and mitigating circumstances was designed by:
Jeremy Bentham
The Classical School is basically a microtheory in its orientation.
False
Showing potential offenders the negative consequences of a crime in the hope that it will prevent them from committing that same crime is the concept of:
General Deterrence
The least important of the three elements of deterrence is:
severity
The concept of somatotypes deals with:
general body structures
Which of the following is frequently referred to as the “father of sociology”?
Comte
Learning theory cautions that television has the power to result in negative modeling and imitation.
True
Work on the “criminal personality” that claimed offenders demonstrated 52 different thinking disorders was done by:
Samenow and Youchelson
Cognitive theory dwells on the differences in thinking patterns between “normal” and criminal individuals.
True
William Healy was the mathematician who applied probability theory to produce the concept of the “average man.”
false
Henry Goddard’s well known study of the lineage of a criminogenic family in the United States was called:
The Kalllikaks.
An approach to explaining criminality that emphasized bumps on the head was:
Phrenology.
All of the following are true about positivism EXCEPT:
I don’t know, but it isn’t “There are two forms: 18th Century Enlightenment and Logical Positivism.”
Gabriel Tarde introduced the notion that behavior, including criminal acts, involves a process of:
Imitation
The Chicago School produced chiefly microtheories.
True
W. I. Thomas developed a term that could be used to explain how a person may receive inappropriate cues from different groups and thus be seen as deviant. This term was:
Definition of the Situation
Chicago school theorists were consensus theorists at heart.
True
Which of the following statements best reflects Shaw and McKay’s findings on city areas?
Rates of delinquency, tuberculosis, and infant mortality decrease as you move away from the central business district.
The Chicago School purported that behavior is shaped by:
social factors
Defensible space is a concept in environmental design theory.
True
The process by which social disorganization affects juveniles and leads to delinquency is known as:
Cultural Transmission
Which of the following ideas does NOT belong to the Chicago School?
Criminals are people who are inherently deviant
Culture conflict theory was developed primarily by:
Thorsten Sellin.
Researchers from the Chicago school studied:
All of the above:
life histories; concentric zones; official data
Sutherland’s own views were said to be shaped by his early interest in:
All of the Above:
prohibition; the criminalization of drug use; the Great Depression
Sutherland attempted to explain both individual criminal behavior and variations in group rates of crime.
True
Two of Sutherland’s books were:
Principles of Criminology and The Professional Thief.
Sutherland viewed criminals as following culturally approved behavior that was disapproved by the larger society.
True
Sutherland did not believe that certain locations and people were more crime-prone than others.
True
Many believe that Sutherland’s theory was heavily influenced by his upbringing, which took place in the ________________ part of the country.
midwestern
Cressey responded to criticisms that differential association did not explain crimes of passion or compulsive crimes with his work combining:
role theory and symbolic interaction
In forming his theory, Sutherland took into account each of the following EXCEPT:
individual responses to societal reaction vary in sensitivity and vulnerability
Dan Glaser extended Sutherland’s work with his own theory of:
differential identification
According to Sutherland, differential associations may vary according to each of the following EXCEPT
relativity
According to anomie theory, if a person rejected the goals but accepted the means, that person would be exhibiting behavior characterized as:
ritualism
Merton did not support assumptions from:
Sigmund Freud
What is the most common of the four deviant modes of adaptation?
innovation
Anomie can be defined as:
Disjunction (or distinction) between cultural goals and socially approved means.
According to Durkheim, deregulated society is also likely to cause:
higher rates of suicide
Positive blockage and negative avoidance combine in general strain theory to create:
The highest rates of delinquency and deviance.
Anomie is often called a functionalist theory.
true
Merton’s theory of deviant behavior:
involves the relationship between goals and means
In Durkheim’s “mechanical society,” people have:
group-oriented goals
If a person rejects both the goals and means and then substitutes new goals and means, that person is engaging in retreatism.
false; it’s call rebellion
The “Subculture of Violence” theory is a product of which theorist(s)?
Marvin Wolfgang and Franco Ferracuti
According to Cloward and Ohlin, the form that a delinquent subculture takes depends on:
The degree of integration in the community.
Miller claimed that the lower class:
Has its own unique culture with distinct lifestyles and values.
According to Yablonsky’s definition of near groups, members are not as attached to the gang as the leader is.
true
Programs developed from the policy implications of subculture theory include all of the following EXCEPT:
The Tennessee Valley Authority.
All of the following are traits that Miller saw in the lives of lower-class youth EXCEPT:
Status frustration, particularly from negative experiences in school.
Gangs that cause trouble equally for criminals and noncriminals are known as the:
conflict subculture
Sykes and Matza disagreed with Cohen’s idea of separate lower-class values. Instead they argued that you only need:
Neutralizations.
The idea that groups of delinquents under the supervision of an adult counselor can assist each other to become more law-abiding is known as:
Guided group interaction.
Cloward and Ohlin are known for _________ theory.
Differential Opportunity
Labeling researchers focus on “extra legal” variables to explain differences in arrest and prosecution rates as well as sentencing disparity.
True
According to Becker, the four types of deviant behavior are:
falsely accused, pure deviant, conforming, and secret deviant
Labeling theory originated in the early 1980s.
False
Labeling theory can be best classified as:
classical, structural, and consensus oriented (for some reason marked wrong)
For Frank Tannenbaum, the process of labeling or tagging someone contained the steps of:
Defining, identifying, and segregating
According to labeling theory, those who engage in criminal behavior are not synonymous with those who are labeled criminal.
True
Labeling theory, as opposed to most other criminological theories, asks:
Why was the person designated as deviant?
Labeling theory is an offshoot of:
Symbolic interactionism
To reconstruct the identity of someone as deviant based on new views of their prior behavior is called:
Retrospective interpretation.
According to Goffman, a courtesy stigma was when a youth was labeled deviant just because he was polite and well-mannered.
False
According to Spitzer, a group that is quiet and poses no threat to the ruling class is called:
Social Junk
Pluralist conflict theories focus on:
Power
Quinney’s theory about crime, law, and the criminal process is known as:
Social reality of crime
Anarchist criminologists believe that society should be more centralized to avoid ambiguity in the legal system.
False
Conflict theorists believe that we should not waste money on attempting to reduce white-collar crime.
False
The main theme of conflict for Marxist criminologists is:
The mode of production
Conflict theories have that general name because they all assume that conflict is abnormal or uncharacteristic of human nature and society.
False
New theoretical trends and avenues of conflict theory include all of the following EXCEPT:
Existential criminology.
Conflict theory emerged on the heels of:
labeling theory
Left realism uses which of the following variables in explaining crime?
The victim, the law, the state, and the community (incorrect)
If the criminal justice system were to reduce its practice of chivalry, there would be the false perception that female criminality is increasing.
True
Examples used in the text for Rita Simon’s female crime and opportunity structures include all of the following EXCEPT:
Martha Stewart’s insider trading.
With respect to delinquency, the critical components of gender relations in the patriarchal family include all of the following EXCEPT:
The birth order of boys and girls in the family
According to Messerschmidt, while masculinity and femininity are fluid concepts, he sees crime as:
Structured Action
According to power-control theory, a more egalitarian family will produce relations that discourage sons and daughters from participating in delinquency.
False
Central to Feinman and Naffine’s concept of economic marginalization is the reality of:
The pink-collar ghetto.
Traditional male-centered approaches to studying crime are called:
Androcentric.
The theory based on the book Sisters in Crime that relies on the power of the women’s liberation movement was proposed by:
Freda Adler.
The liberation and opportunity perspective argues that as the gender gap narrows, the behavior of men and women will become more different.
False
The theory that partially explains delinquency by the fact that power relationships in the workplace are reflected in the family is:
Power-control
Which of the following would NOT be considered a typical variable for analysis for social control theory?
economic barriers
Social control theories generally assume that:
Conformity, not deviance, must be explained
The most popular version of social control in the 1970s and 1980s was the one presented by:
Travis Hirschi.
According to Durkheim, social controls are necessary for order to exist and for people to understand the boundaries of accepted behavior.
True
Which of the following is NOT one of the techniques of neutralization?
Rejection of the implication
According to the text, which is a characteristic of Hirschi and Gottfredson’s self-control theory?
IT IS NOT It uses a more narrow, restrictive definition of crime.
All of the following are part of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s perception and definition of crime EXCEPT:
A consequence of genetic determinism.
According to Gottfredson and Hirschi in their general theory of crime, all of the following are true EXCEPT:
IT IS NOT Criminality traits are naturally present from birth.
Durkheim purported that behavior is controlled by:
Social reaction to someone else’s behavior.
Matza called the ties that exist between the individual and the dominant values of society:
Bonds to the moral order.
Jeffery’s approach to learning theory suggests that each person has a unique conditioning history through which he or she interprets stimuli.
True
Signals that help an individual determine those situations in which a particular behavior may be appropriate are known as:
Discriminative stimuli.
In Jeffery’s social learning theory, the determination of whether behavior will be deviant or conforming depends on:
The availability of role models. (wrong)
Dan Glaser’s version of a social learning theory has been called
differential anticipation
Jeffery’s differential reinforcement theory postulates that criminal behavior can be maintained without social approval.
True
One of the problems with Akers’ social learning theory is that it is:
None of the above
Social learning theory considers _______ to be central to the learning process.
modeling (wrong)
Any event that follows the occurrence of behavior, and that alters and increases the frequency of that behavior, is known as:
Reinforcement
Social learning theory is primarily an extension of:
social control theory (wrong)
Some objected to the use of behavior modification, claiming it was a way to brainwash people.
true
According to lifestyle theory, when lifestyle variations are taken into account:
Victimization experiences and potential victimizations are relatively predictable.
Rational choice theories developed in the midst of social events that included all of the following EXCEPT:
The Anti-Immigration Protests.
A routine activities theorist would argue that victims and targets are randomly distributed through all types of settings.
False
Rational choice theory is most strongly identified in the work of:
Clark and Cornish.
Routine activities theory requires the absence of a capable guardian before a crime can be expected to occur.
true
Cohen and Felson claim that changes that have taken place in American society have resulted in all of the following EXCEPT:
More people at home during work hours
All of the following can be used to describe rational theories EXCEPT:
conflict oriented
Routine activities can be considered a continuation of the Chicago School because of its emphasis on:
Social disorganization and ecology.
Lifestyle theory focuses more on:
the lifestyle of the victim
One of the primary concepts of lifestyle theory is the criminal’s identification with specific forms of crime.
false
The age-crime curve demonstrates that individuals between the ages of _____ are arrested more frequently than any other age group.
12 and 20
Sampson and Laub argue that only social factors explain criminal behavior (not individual factors).
false
Developmental theories differ from other theoretical explanations of crime in that they argue that an individual’s likelihood of offending changes over the life-course.
true
Moffitt argues that there are three types of person-environment interactions. Which of the following scenarios is an example of an evocative interaction:
Sally and Jeff both watch their friends fight. Sally and Jeff, however, interpret the fight differently (wrong)
Sampson and Laub developed their theory from their own personal experiences.
false
Which of the following was the example used in the text of someone who changed criminal tendencies over the life-course?
The young man who was an Al-Qaeda terrorist
According to Sampson and Laub, individuals desist from crime because:
the(y) age out of criminal behavior (wrong)
Life-course theory is closely related to the early work of anomie theory.
false
According to the life-course prospective, trajectories refer to
the different roles one assumes with aging
According to Moffitt, proactive person-environment interactions are defined as
“different individuals are exposed to the same environment but they experience it, interpret it, and react to it differently.” (wrong)
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